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On requirements-driven design of distributed smart grid automation control
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0075-1608
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9315-9920
2017 (English)In: Proceedings: 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2017, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 738-745, article id 8104864Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes a novel method of modelling requirements for smart grid automation systems that fits and complements the leading standards used for software development in smart grid: IEC 61850 and IEC 61499. Ontological representation is used to formally model the systems requirements and the integration of the requirement modelling to be used in conjunction with IEC 61850 specifications and IEC 61499 implementation. The proposed model is illustrated on a case study presented by the CIGRE working group where the system requirement in natural language was firstly modelled in ontology, then implemented in IEC 61499. Lastly, the resulting IEC 61499 control system was tested and validated against the system requirement by signal testing of the end control system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017. p. 738-745, article id 8104864
Series
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics INDIN, ISSN 1935-4576
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66914DOI: 10.1109/INDIN.2017.8104864ISI: 000427453200111Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85041216399ISBN: 978-1-5386-0837-1 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-66914DiVA, id: diva2:1163136
Conference
15th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2017, University of Applied Science Emden/LeerEmden, Germany, 24-26 July 2017
Available from: 2017-12-06 Created: 2017-12-06 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Cyber-Physical Engineering of Distributed Automation Systems in Energy Domain
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cyber-Physical Engineering of Distributed Automation Systems in Energy Domain
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Cyber-Fysikalisk Konstruktion av Distribuerade Automationssystem inom Energidomänen
Abstract [en]

The main focus of this thesis is in the domain of Energy Systems, specifically in the engi-neering of modern Smart Grid (SG) automation systems. The SG has been categorizedas a Cyber-Physical System (CPS), a complex system which exhibits tight integration between the cyber and the physical processes and their interactions in a networked envi-ronment. The complexity and the computation of the automation system are expectedto increase with the promise of a ”smart” electric grid which is capable of self-healing, self-reconfiguration and become more resilient against cyber-attacks. These automation software systems require control strategies which are distributed in execution and requirevery tight integrations and interactions between various modular software and hardware components. As the automation system becomes more software intensive, we hypothesizethat existing design practices of developing the substation automation software system would struggle to cope with the distributed design challenges of the Smart Grid and they could be substantially enhanced by the application of model-driven design, distributed software architectures and semantic models.

Model-driven engineering (MDE) is a software design paradigm that leverages the use of abstraction models at different stages of the design process for engineering complex software systems. MDE is widely used in the software engineering domain and it has proven to be effective when designing and maintaining large-scale software applications.One of the core tenants of MDE is model transformation and it is considered the heartand soul of MDE. The standard modelling language that is used for MDE in software engineering is the Unified Modelling Language (UML), which is a visual language with awide array of tool support. Despite its popularity in the software domain, UML models still have its limitations. In particular, the lack of uniformed semantics between its 13different visual diagrams and the lack of formal notations. In this thesis, we proposethe Cyber-Physical Engineering (CPE) framework, an MDE framework which combines semantic models and MDE based automatic model transformation in order to auto-generate both the automation control system and the simulation plant model from thephysical and functional specifications of CPS systems.

All the scientific papers included in this thesis contributes towards the proposed Cyber-Physical Engineering methodology which includes MDE using semantic models, formal modelling of functional requirements and co-simulation testing of CPS systems.

The contribution of the thesis is fivefold. Firstly, the thesis proposes the CPE frame-work, which is based on the use of semantic web modelling language where logical rea-soning can be applied to the models. The modelling language that is used is the Web Ontology Language (OWL), which is a declarative language with a strong formal foun-dation based on description logic. Secondly, the extended Semantic Web Rule Language(eSWRL) is introduced which defines the constructors that are necessary for model trans-forming OWL ontology models. The eSWRL transformation language is proposed to bean extension to the widely used ontology reasoning language Semantic Web Rule Lan-guage (SWRL) in order to address the limitations of monotonicity which restricts SWRLfrom transforming ontological models. Thirdly, the implementation of the underlying transformation engine of eSWRL in SWI Prolog. Fourthly, the formal modelling of func-tional requirements in ontology is proposed which investigates the viability of using nat-ural language based functional requirements to add control flow to the auto-generated automation control system. Lastly, an automated script based co-simulation environ-ment is shown to demonstrate how black-box validation can be performed to test theauto-generated automation control system.

Finally, the thesis presents the resultant CPE framework for the modelling and genera-tion of distributed CPS automation software that leverages the use of semantic web OWL models. It is aimed to provide a top-down design approach of developing distributed con-trol software for CPS systems along with the simulation model of the physical plant. Inthis thesis, we demonstrate the development process of the CPE framework and throughcase study applications, how a semi-complete distributed automation software system in IEC 61499 can be automatically generated from substation specifications in IEC 61850 and natural language based functional requirements which provide the structure and thecontrol flow of the distributed automation software respectively. An eSWRL toolchainhas been developed to facilitate the various model transformation process of the CPE framework.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2018
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Control Engineering Computer Systems Communication Systems Computer Sciences
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68045 (URN)978-91-7790-076-4 (ISBN)978-91-7790-077-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-05-25, A109, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-03-26 Created: 2018-03-23 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved

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