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Some aspects on designing for metal Powder Bed Fusion
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3298-502X
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Additive Manufacturing (AM) using the Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) is a relatively new manufacturing method that is capable of creating shapes that was previously practically impossible to manufacture. Many think it will revolutionize how manufacturing will be done in the future. This thesis is about some aspects of when and how to Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM) when using the PBF method in metal materials. Designing complex shapes is neither easy nor always needed, so when to design for AM is a question with different answers depending on industry or product. The cost versus performance is an important metric in making that selection. How to design for AM can be divided into how to improve performance and how to improve additive manufacturability where how to improve performance once depends on product, company and customer needs. Using advanced part shaping techniques like using Lattices or Topology Optimization (TO) to lower part mass may increase customer value in addition to lowering part cost due to faster part builds and less powder and energy use. Improving PBF manufacturability is then warranted for parts that reach series production, where determining an optimal build direction is key as it affects many properties of PBF parts. Complex shapes which are designed for optimal performance are usually more sensitive to defects which might reduce the expected performance of the part. Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) might be needed to certify a part for dimensional accuracy and internal defects prior use. The licentiate thesis covers some aspects of both when to DfAM and how to DfAM of products destined for series production. It uses design by Lattices and Topology Optimization to reduce mass and looks at the effect on part cost and mass. It also shows effects on geometry translation accuracies from design to AM caused by differences in geometric definitions. Finally it shows the effect on how different NDE methods are capable of detecting defects in additively manufactured parts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University , 2017. , p. 80
Series
Örebro Studies in Technology, ISSN 1650-8580 ; 74
Keywords [en]
Additive Manufacturing, AM, DfAM, lattice, Powder Bed Fusion, Topology optimization, Selective Laser Melting, Electron Beam Melting, Design for manufacturability
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62947OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-62947DiVA, id: diva2:1162904
Presentation
2017-11-29, Örebro universitet, Prismahuset, sal P258, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Additive Manufacturing and High Speed Machining - Cost comparison of short lead time manufacturing methods
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Additive Manufacturing and High Speed Machining - Cost comparison of short lead time manufacturing methods
2016 (English)In: 26th CIRP Design Conference, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016, p. 384-389Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Additive Manufacturing (AM) using Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) allows part with abstract shapes, that otherwise would need costly tooling, to be manufactured with short lead time. In this study AM build time simulations are used to predict series part cost for eight parts that are possible to cut from rod blanks using High Speed Machining (HSM). Results indicate that when the part shape can be cut from rod blanks, AM is more expensive than HSM even for series of one. If post processing machining is added to the printed AM blank part, the cost difference increases further. Finally, the model is used to predict part-cost in series production if print speed increases, if machine cost is reduced or if part mass is reduced as a result of redesign for AM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016
Series
Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271 ; 50
Keywords
Additive manufacturing, Powder Bed Fusion, High speed machining, cost, series production, AISI MR
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53931 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2016.05.049 (DOI)000387666600064 ()2-s2.0-84986576762 (Scopus ID)
Conference
26th CIRP Design Conference, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, June 15-17, 2016
Available from: 2016-12-13 Created: 2016-12-13 Last updated: 2018-07-17Bibliographically approved
2. (Re)Design for Additive Manufacturing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>(Re)Design for Additive Manufacturing
2016 (English)In: 26th CIRP Design Conference, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016, p. 246-251Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

3D-printing has been used to create prototypes during the development phase for more than 20 years. Now, functional parts can be printed directly in specific metal powders using similar layer-by-layer techniques. The additive method is unlike traditional mass production manufacturing methods in many ways, creating new possibilities for designers to realise new and different design ideas previously impossible to manufacture. When products are mass produced, there is a desire to improve manufacturability. This is traditionally done by a designer with knowledge about certain manufacturing methods altering design choices to make it cheaper to manufacture.

This paper shows different design for AM (DfAM) methods where performance and part cost are both of interest. It adds to existing research by classifying design for additive manufacturing in two different classes; process-driven and designer-driven shaping of parts. A cost-prediction model for Selective Laser Melting (SLM) printed parts is suggested as an initial step to choose parts for redesign from an economical perspective. A case study of a missile launcher beam redesigned for additive manufacturing using three different approaches is presented. Differences and similarities in design methods are discussed and the redesigned parts are compared for mass and cost. It is shown that redesigning for AM can reduce mass but depending on part size and print speed, the part can become more expensive than the original design, creating a need to know the customer value of what the redesigned part provides, in this case, the value of reduced mass.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016
Series
Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271 ; 50
Keywords
Additive manufacturing, Powder Bed Fusion, design, topology optimisation, lattices, DfAM
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53930 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2016.04.150 (DOI)000387666600041 ()2-s2.0-84986631521 (Scopus ID)
Conference
26th CIRP Design Conference, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, June 15-17, 2016
Available from: 2016-12-13 Created: 2016-12-13 Last updated: 2018-07-17Bibliographically approved
3. 3D data export for Additive Manufacturing - improving geometric accuracy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>3D data export for Additive Manufacturing - improving geometric accuracy
2016 (English)In: 26th CIRP Design Conference, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016, p. 518-523Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

3D data exchange between different CAD systems and from design to manufacturing has largely moved to ISO STEP based formats. The Additive Manufacturing (AM) process today requires an approximate, planar triangle tessellated 3D model as an input. Improving accuracy in STL file exports is done differently in different CAD systems. Poor tessellation accuracy results in built parts with poor geometric accuracy because of errors in source data. In this study, results of tessellation from six different CAD systems are compared. Roundness accuracy for the different settings is calculated. Results show that tessellation effects may be visible even when roundness requirements are fulfilled. A method for 3D data exchange for AM using STEP and geometric requirements is proposed until better accuracy AM formats can be used.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016
Series
Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271 ; 50
Keywords
Additive manufacturing, 3D printing, STL, STEP, tessellation, accuracy, roundness
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53932 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2016.05.046 (DOI)000387666600087 ()2-s2.0-84986558119 (Scopus ID)
Conference
26th CIRP Design Conference, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, June 15-17, 2016
Available from: 2016-12-13 Created: 2016-12-13 Last updated: 2018-07-17Bibliographically approved
4. Non-destructive evaluation of internal defects in additive manufactured aluminium
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-destructive evaluation of internal defects in additive manufactured aluminium
2016 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Keywords
additive manufacturing, selective laser melting, aluminium, computed tomography, ultrasonic inspection, eddy current
National Category
Mechanical Engineering Materials Engineering
Research subject
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-51003 (URN)
Conference
World PM 2016, Powder Metallurgy World Congress, Hamburg, Germany, October 9-13, 2016
Available from: 2016-06-21 Created: 2016-06-21 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

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