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Life Cycle Assessment of Paper Based Printed Circuits
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Printed circuit boards have been massively manufactured and wildly used in all kinds of electronic devices during people’s daily life for more than thirty years since the last century. As a highly integrated device mainly consists of silicon base, an etched copper layer and other soldered components, massive production of printed circuit boards are considered to be environmentally unfriendly due to the wet chemical manufacturing mode and lack of recycling ability. On the other hand, the newly invented ink jet printing technology enables cost-effective manufacturing of flexible, thin and disposable electrical devices, which avoid acid etching process and lead to less toxic emissions into the environment. It is important to consider life cycle analysis for quantitative environmental impact evaluation and comparison of both printed circuit boards and printed electronics to enhance the sustainability of a new technology with product design and development. This thesis first reviews the current approaches to conventional and modern printing methods, as well as the state-of-the-art analysis of sustainability and environmental assessment methodologies. In the second part, a typical ink jet printed electronic device is introduced (an active flexible cable for wearable electrocardiogram monitoring). This active cable is designed for the interconnection between bio electrodes and central medical devices for bio signal transmission. As the active cable consists of five different metal transmission traces which are formed by printing conductive ink onto paper substrates, different shielding methods are investigated to ensure high quality bio signal transmission. Specifically, the results prove that passive shielding methods can significantly decrease the cross talk between different transmission traces, enabling the transmitting of bio signals for wearable ECG monitoring. This research also explores environmental issues related to printed electronics. For the full life cycle of printed electronics, we focused not only on quantitative environmental emissions to air, fresh water, sea and industrial soil, but also on resource consumption and impacts analysis. Finally, comparative environmental performance evaluation of traditional cables and ink jet printed active cables are made to examine the environmental impact and sustainability of both technologies, and the results show the strengths and weaknesses of each technology by analysis and assessment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , p. 39
Series
TRITA-ICT ; 2017:24
Keyword [en]
Printed Electronics, Environment, PCB, Life Cycle assessment, Emissions
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-219405ISBN: 978-91-7729-636-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-219405DiVA, id: diva2:1162765
Presentation
2018-01-29, Ka-Sal C (Sal Sven-Olof Öhrvik), Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20171205

Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Environmental Impacts Analysis for Inkjet Printed Paper-based Bio-patch
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental Impacts Analysis for Inkjet Printed Paper-based Bio-patch
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology, ISSN 2458-9403, p. 837-847Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents comparative environment impact evaluation and assessment between inkjet printing technology based Electrocardiography (ECG) Bio-patch and traditional Printed Circuit Board (PCB) based ECG Holters. Due to the complexity of electronic systems and the consistent lack of solid data about a product’s life cycles, a limited comparison has been carried out to qualify the input and output of raw material resources, energy resources used in manufacturing phases and environmental emissions in end-of-life phases. Based on the GaBi’s balance calculation methodology, a case study is described to illustrated the possibility of environmental potential benefits from above mentioned technologies.

National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-219395 (URN)
Note

QC 20171205

Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
2. Investigation and Evaluation of Life Cycle Assessment of Printed Electronics and its Environmental Impacts Analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation and Evaluation of Life Cycle Assessment of Printed Electronics and its Environmental Impacts Analysis
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2010 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents cradle to gate life cycle assessment of printed electronics resources. In this work an attempt has been made to investigate and evaluate the life cycle assessment and the environmental impacts of printed electronics resources such as printed RFID antenna. Life cycle inventory analysis for these resources has been carried out to quantify total systems’ inputs and outputs that are relevant to environmental impact especially emissions to air, fresh water. We have also compared printed flexible substrate structure based on polymer substrate with inkjet material deposition to more traditional PCB technology. The chosen approach can be easily relevant to other flexible substrates and materials or device structures.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-219401 (URN)
Conference
Proceedings of NEXT 2010 Conference
Note

QC 20171205

Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. Electrical performance of inkjet printed flexible cable for ECG monitoring
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrical performance of inkjet printed flexible cable for ECG monitoring
2011 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents electrical performance of paper based inkjet printed flexible cable for wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. The cable is fabricated by inkjet printing of nano-silver wires on paper which connect bio electric electrodes with wireless transmission of ECG signals to the central medical device. The cable consists of printed metal traces and a shielding line in the middle. The experiment results show that a reliable performance with high quality ECG data can be transmitted on the inkjet printed flexible cable.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2011. p. 231-234
Series
IEEE Conference on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging and Systems-EPEPS, ISSN 2165-4107
Keyword
ECG monitoring, inkjet printed, shielding
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-88952 (URN)10.1109/EPEPS.2011.6100234 (DOI)000299429300052 ()2-s2.0-84855378677 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-9398-2 (ISBN)
Conference
20th Conference on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging and Systems (EPEPS), 2011 IEEE
Note

QC 20120215

Available from: 2012-02-15 Created: 2012-02-14 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
4. Bio-Chip ASIC and Printed Flexible Cable on Paper Substrate for Wearable Healthcare Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bio-Chip ASIC and Printed Flexible Cable on Paper Substrate for Wearable Healthcare Applications
2011 (English)In: Proceeding ISABEL '11 Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Applied Sciences in Biomedical and Communication Technologies, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we describe two cutting-edge technologies for the emerging wearable healthcare applications: application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and printed electronics on a flexible paper substrate. The ASIC enables a compact integration of active circuit blocks on a chip. Due to its tiny size, the ASIC makes the wearable unit unobtrusive and maximizes the wearer's comfort. The electrical performance of a paper based inkjet printed flexible cable is also exhibited. Combining the two technologies together, an example of electrocardiogram (ECG) signal recording is presented.

Keyword
ASIC, Inkjet Printed Electronics, Wearable Electronics
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-75210 (URN)10.1145/2093698.2093774 (DOI)2-s2.0-84856750383 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-0913-4 (ISBN)
Conference
4th International Symposium on Applied Sciences in Biomedical and Communication Technologies. Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. October 26-29, 2011
Note

QC 20120413

Available from: 2012-02-05 Created: 2012-02-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
5. Life Cycle Assessment of Paper Based Printed Interconnections for ECG Monitoring
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life Cycle Assessment of Paper Based Printed Interconnections for ECG Monitoring
2017 (English)In: European Journal of Engineering Research and Science, ISSN 2506-8016, Vol. 2, p. 65-70Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents quantitative environment impact evaluation and assessment of inkjet printed flexible cable on soft substrates for Electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring. The studied printed ECG cable is fabricated by inkjet printing of nanoparticles wire on paper substrate which enables wireless transmission of ECG signals between bio- electric electrodes and central medical device. In order to facilitate the inventory analysis, the environmental impacts evaluation of inkjet printing technology has been carried out by comparing with traditional ECG cables. With the life cycle inventory modeling by using GaBi software, the life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to qualify the input and output of raw material resources, energy resources used in manufacturing phases and the impacts to the environment.

Keyword
Life Cycle Assessment; Flexible Substrate; Environmental Impacts; Toxic Emissions; Printed Electronics
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-219396 (URN)10.24018/ejers.2017.2.6.382 (DOI)
Note

QC 20171205

Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2018-03-07Bibliographically approved

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