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Evolution of a predator-induced, nonlinear reaction norm
Univ Chile, Ctr Nacl Medio Ambiente, Ave Larrain 9975, Santiago, Chile.;Univ Andres Bello, Dept Ecol, Fac Ecol & Recursos Nat, Santiago, Chile..
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5602-1933
Eawag, Dept Aquat Ecol, Uberlandstr 133, CH-8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland..
Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Sheffield S10 2TN, S Yorkshire, England..
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2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 284, no 1861, article id 20170859Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Inducible, anti-predator traits are a classic example of phenotypic plasticity. Their evolutionary dynamics depend on their genetic basis, the historical pattern of predation risk that populations have experienced and current selection gradients. When populations experience predators with contrasting hunting strategies and size preferences, theory suggests contrasting micro-evolutionary responses to selection. Daphnia pulex is an ideal species to explore the microevolutionary response of anti-predator traits because they face heterogeneous predation regimes, sometimes experiencing only invertebrate midge predators and other times experiencing vertebrate fish and invertebrate midge predators. We explored plausible patterns of adaptive evolution of a predator-induced morphological reaction norm. We combined estimates of selection gradients that characterize the various habitats that D. pulex experiences with detail on the quantitative genetic architecture of inducible morphological defences. Our data reveal a fine scale description of daphnid defensive reaction norms, and a strong covariance between the sensitivity to cues and the maximum response to cues. By analysing the response of the reaction norm to plausible, predator-specific selection gradients, we show how in the context of this covariance, micro-evolution may be more uniform than predicted from size-selective predation theory. Our results show how covariance between the sensitivity to cues and the maximum response to cues for morphological defence can shape the evolutionary trajectory of predator-induced defences in D. pulex.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ROYAL SOC , 2017. Vol. 284, no 1861, article id 20170859
Keywords [en]
reaction norm, evolution, predator-induced plasticity, morphological defence, Daphnia pulex
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334851DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2017.0859ISI: 000408662400024OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-334851DiVA, id: diva2:1161955
Available from: 2017-12-01 Created: 2017-12-01 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved

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