Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Program Matters: From Drawing to Code
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Whether on paper, on site or mediating between both, means for reading and writing geometry have been central to architecture: the use of compasses and rulers, strings, pins, stakes or plumb-lines enabled the analysis and reproduction of congruent figures on different surfaces since antiquity, and from the renaissance onwards, the consistent planar representation of three-dimensional shapes by means of projective geometry. Tacitly through practice, or explicitly encoded in classical geometry, the operational syntaxes of drawing instruments, real or imaginary, have determined the geometric literacies regulating the production and instruction of architecture. But making marks on the surfaces of paper, stone or the ground has recently given way to the fundamentally different sequential operations of computers as the material basis of architectural inscription. Practices which have dominated architecture since antiquity make little sense in its current reading and writing systems. 

This thesis examines technologies of digital inscription in a search for literacies equivalent to those of drawn geometry. It particularly looks at programming as a form of notation in close correspondence with its material basis as a technology, and its effects on architecture. It includes prototypes and experiments, graphics, algorithms and software, together with their descriptions and theoretical analyses. While the artefacts and texts respond to the different forms, styles, interests and objectives specific to the fields and contexts in which they have originated, their fundamental purpose is always to critique and propose ways of writing and reading architecture through programming, the rationale of the research and practice they stem from. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , p. 102
Series
TRITA-ARK. Akademisk avhandling, ISSN 1402-7461 ; 2017:4
Keyword [en]
program, algorithm, code, drawing, geometry, notation, score, literacy, writing systems, diagram, formalism, sequence, cybernetics, materiality, research programme, archeological, archive, discourse analysis, practice-based, artefact, bricolage
National Category
Architecture
Research subject
Architecture
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-218462ISBN: 978-91-7729-586-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-218462DiVA, id: diva2:1160985
Public defence
2018-01-12, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council FormasEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Note

QC 20171129

Available from: 2017-11-29 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Out of Control: The media of architecture, cybernetics and design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Out of Control: The media of architecture, cybernetics and design
2007 (English)In: Material matters: architecture and material practice / [ed] Katie Lloyd Thomas, London: Routledge, 2007, p. 151-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Routledge, 2007
Keyword
Computation, Cybernetics, CAD, Chemical Computer
National Category
Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-87262 (URN)9780415363266 (ISBN)
Note

QC 20120516

Available from: 2012-02-14 Created: 2012-02-14 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
2. Spot with Paths, an Interactive Diagram with a Low Complexity Isovist Algorithm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spot with Paths, an Interactive Diagram with a Low Complexity Isovist Algorithm
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of Ninth International Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Young Ook Kim, Hoon Tae Park, Kyung Wook Seo, Seoul: Sejong University Press , 2013, p. 062: 1-062: 13Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In an often quoted sentence of his 1976 book “The Architecture of Form”, Lionel March drew a clear distinction between science, interested in extant forms, and design, which initiates novel forms. The theories, methods, measures and diagrams of space syntax have often developed following this first more scientific scheme, and they have been concerned with the analysis of existing or projected buildings and cities.This emphasis on analysis is evident in current software, algorithms and measures. But is it possible to think of a space syntax not only as a way of analysing existing situations or validating future designs, but as a form of actually generating architecture?

In our work we have used space syntax at the early stages of the design process, not so much as a form of analysis, but as a sort of architectural diagram. The shift of space syntax into a generative role has demanded a set of conceptual and technical adjustments: from the emphasis on graphic language and visualisation to the need for fast feedback and interaction.

In this paper we present an example from our work, and the framework (technical and methodological) necessary to produce it. The digital diagram we have created deals with the design of a new hospital ward. It represents some basic problems we have encountered in the relation of patients, staff and architecture, which are incorporated into the software through 3 basic interactive entities: isovists (from patients positions), the circulation paths of hospital staff (with a calculation of their visibility relations to the patients), and the arrangement of walls to form rooms. All these 3 entity types are interdependent: isovists depend of walls and positions and the visualisation of staff paths depends on the patients isovists. They are also editable in real time, that is, walls, isovists and paths can be added,deleted, or moved, and the effects of any of these actions visualised at once.

This fast interaction and feedback require efficient algorithms and data structures. In particular we have implemented an algorithm for the calculation of isovists or visibility polygons with a complexity dependent of the size (in terms of visible vertices) of the visibility polygon, rather than being a function of the size of the boundary. This allow us to calculate visibility polygons in real time irrespective of the size of the boundary, may this be a building or a whole city. Our method implements an idea by Åsmund Izaki for the calculation of isovists and visibility graphs, based in the use of an underlying triangulation data structure for the search of all visible vertices from a point. Besides the general interest of our approach to the use of space syntax in a generative rather than in an analytical way, we believe that the algorithms for the calculation of visibility polygons or isovists can find application also into existing space syntax software, improving its performance, and in some cases opening the possibility for an extension of its role from forms of analysis to generative ones.

Our software has been developed using the C++ programming language, and it makes extensive use of Open Source libraries such as CGAL, Dime, Qt and Boost. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Seoul: Sejong University Press, 2013
Keyword
Isovist, Visibility Polygon, Low Complexity, Algorithm, Interactive Software, Design Application, Paths.
National Category
Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-137938 (URN)2-s2.0-85006274864 (Scopus ID)978-89-86177-21-3 (ISBN)
Conference
9th International Space Syntax Symposium, Seoul October31 November 3, 2013
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 242497
Note

QC 20140103

Available from: 2013-12-16 Created: 2013-12-16 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
3. A Computational Method For Generating Convex Maps Using the Medial Axis Transform
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Computational Method For Generating Convex Maps Using the Medial Axis Transform
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of Ninth International Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Young Ook Kim, Hoon Tae Park, Kyung Wook Seo, Seoul: Sejong University Press , 2013, p. 064: 1-064: 11Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Convex maps were first introduced by Hillier and Hanson in “The social logic of space”, and have since become a standard diagram of space syntax, particularly in the analysis of interior of buildings. Despite of their extensive use, the computer generation of convex maps turns out to be quite difficult. An  algorithmic description of the process would afford an objective form of reproducing analysis results and the consistent application of the same method on a set of data; unfortunately the original guidelines to draw convex maps by hand have been shown to be impossible to translate into a formal description of the type necessary for a computer program. 

Thus, rather than attempting a translation of the original procedure, we have looked at alternatives methods for producing convex maps in the field of shape analysis. In particular we have studied a set of problems which deal with the decomposition of shapes into simpler parts and their organisation,and which are conceptually related to the convex map. We have accordingly developed a method for subdividing architectural plans into non overlapping, convex partitions that captures their most salient organisational features, based on the medial axis transform, a well known shape descriptor first proposed by H.Blum in 1967.  Our method is based on adding the simpler convex regions defined through the segments and branching points of the medial axis according to different priorities, under the condition that these additions remain convex. 

In space syntax the automatic production of convex spaces has often focused on their instrumentality in the calculation of axial maps, and has not have the convex map as the final objective.The method we have developed, in the other hand, produces convincing convex partitions and maps, which often coincide with those resulting from following the original hand-drown method description. Its results can be used for representing the organisation of spaces at the level of simplicity and abstraction of the original convex partitions proposed by Hillier and Hanson, and to allow the study of their configuration through the application of different graph measures and visualisation techniques.

We have implemented our methods in C++. The effective calculation of the medial axis required the use of robust and reliable computational geometry libraries, and consequently we have based most of our geometric data-structures and algorithms in those provided by CGAL, a well tested and widely used library distributed under GPL/LGPL license. Besides CGAL our tests and demonstration programs also use a number of different libraries, such as Dime, for dxf input and output or Qt, for GUI and interaction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Seoul: Sejong University Press, 2013
Keyword
Building diagrams, Convex Maps, Medial Axis, Convex Partitions, Graphs, Building Analysis, Shape Analysis, Algorithm
National Category
Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-137874 (URN)978-89-86177-21-3 (ISBN)
Conference
9th International Space Syntax Symposium, Seoul, October 31 - November 3, 2013
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 242497
Note

Approved for publication via Diva by Conference Organisers. 

QC 20140103

Available from: 2013-12-16 Created: 2013-12-16 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
4. Programs as Paradigms
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Programs as Paradigms
2014 (English)In: Architectural Design, ISSN 0003-8504, E-ISSN 1554-2769, Vol. 84, no 5, p. 66-73Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

How might we synthesise two very different approaches in architecture? One based on programme and another on typology or paradigm. Pablo Miranda Carranza, a researcher at the Architecture School at the RoyalInstitute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, takes his cue from an approach suggested by Colin Rowe in the early 1980s to examine how computation formulates architectural thinking and presentation.

National Category
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-154380 (URN)10.1002/ad.1810 (DOI)000341871500009 ()2-s2.0-84908164948 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20141021

Available from: 2014-10-21 Created: 2014-10-20 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
5. Computer utterances: Sequence and event in digital architecture
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Computer utterances: Sequence and event in digital architecture
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Architectural Computing, ISSN 1478-0771 Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Barely a month before the end of World War II, a technical report begun circulating among allied scientists: the ‘First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC’, attributed to John von Neumann, described for the first time the design and implementation of the earliest stored-program computer. The ‘First Draft’ became the template followed by subsequent British and American computers, establishing the standard characteristics of most computing machines to date. This article looks at how the material and design choices described in this report influenced architecture, as it set up the technological matrix onto which a discipline relying on a tradition of drawn geometry would be eventually completely remediated. It consists of two parts: first, a theoretical section, analysing the repercussions for architecture of the type of computer laid out in the ‘First Draft’. Second, a description of a design experiment, a sort of information furniture, that tests and exemplifies some of the observations from the first section. This experiment examines the possibilities of an architecture that, moving beyond geometric representations, uses instead the programming of events as its rationale. The structure of this article reflects a methodology in which theoretical formulation and design experiments proceed in parallel. The theoretical investigation proposes concepts that can be tested and refined through design and conversely design work determines and encourages technical, critical and historical research. This relation is dialogical: theoretical investigation is not simply a rationalisation and explanation of earlier design work; inversely, the role of design is not just to illustrate previously formulated concepts. Both design and theorisation are interdependent but autonomous in their parallel development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2017
Keyword
Stored-program, Turing machine, Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer, inscription/incorporation, geometry, sequence, event, information furniture, tangible interface, calm technology
National Category
Architecture
Research subject
Architecture; History of Science, Technology and Environment; Art, Technology and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-218178 (URN)10.1177/1478077117734661 (DOI)
Projects
Architecture in the Making, Forms as events: the spells of control flow.COMPEIT
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework ProgrammeSwedish Research Council Formas
Note

QC 20171127

Available from: 2017-11-24 Created: 2017-11-24 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

Program Matters(855 kB)127 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 855 kBChecksum SHA-512
dee7e976a9cd1256d38f8771b8454269a7cc2b5bcbe6febae55dd15eaff9b32bc184694e6f86c9aa854058a5b9e4e865c5cbb5ee59fefdbe990eda2f9b672ac0
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Miranda Carranza, Pablo
By organisation
Urban Design
Architecture

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 127 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 978 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf