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Utilisation of Excess Heat Towards a Circular Economy: Implications of interorganisational collaborations and strategic planning
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In order to significantly lower the environmental impact from human activities, numerous efforts and approaches related to the transformation of human activities have developed during the last decades. Examples of such efforts are policies and strategies at different levels, some with a top-down approach focusing on extensive institutional changes, and some with a bottom-up approach focusing on industrial actors and industry-led activities.

One essential aspect of these efforts concerns the energy used producing the products and services provided within our society. This includes, for example, improved efficiency of processes in order to minimise the amount of energy used, or optimisation of efficiency by using energy with the lowest possible exergy value. It can also be about re-use of energy, which is the focus of this thesis. Heat, which is the main by-product of all energy systems, can be utilised for heating purposes to lower the primary energy demand for heating. Increased utilisation of excess heat, however, requires collaboration between normally unrelated actors, those with a supply of and those demanding excess heat.

In Sweden, which is a Northern European country with high demand for heat, the tradition of large energy-intensive manufacturing industries generating large amounts of excess heat, in combination with well-established district heating distribution systems, constitute good conditions for excess heat utilisation. Despite the fact that Sweden is among the world leaders in utilising excess heat, there is however, still a large unutilised potential.

From this background, the objective of this thesis is to identify challenges behind excess heat utilisation for heating purposes, and to propose practical suggestions to facilitate expanded excess heat utilisation. The overall objective is analysed with a focus on drivers and barriers behind interorganisational collaborations on excess heat utilisation, important components of interorganisational business models and how the technical conditions regarding supply and demand could be facilitated by strategic municipal spatial planning processes. The research is largely based on interviews conducted with societal actors with different perspectives on excess heat utilisation; energy companies, industries generating high-grade excess heat, facilities generating low-grade excess heat, facilities demanding low-grade excess heat, experts of utilisation of low-grade excess heat, branch organisations, municipal spatial planners, energy- and climate advisors, and developers. Document studies have been conducted in order to collect case specific knowledge. The research questions are explored based on literature studies on the principles of industrial symbiosis, business model perspective and strategic planning. Further, they are examined in a Swedish context.

It is concluded that the three perspectives complement each other by providing a system perspective on increased utilisation of excess heat as they seek to contribute both environmental and financial benefits at both a company and societal level. In order to facilitate further utilisation of excess heat it is important to focus on the organisational factors of humility, honesty, transparency, trust, fine-grained information transfer, joint problem solving, and shared visions of common goals, which are important conditions behind development of functional and long-term durable collaborations. Business models for collaboration could contribute to the creation of these organisationally important conditions. Such business models could also provide knowledge on how to create and capture joint values. For some collaborations involving actors lacking the technical knowledge related to the capturing and distribution of excess heat, a third-party providing services related to the technical knowledge required could be beneficial. Collaborations in which one of the actors consists of an energy company often entail the technical knowledge required. This implies that different collaborations involving different types of actors and under different prevailing financial, technical and organisational conditions require customised and flexible business solutions. Local authorities could, through their overall function, initiate interorganisational collaborations on excess heat within the framework of municipal spatial planning. The results do however show that the investigated planning processes could develop more extensive stakeholder participation to include further societal actors related to excess heat. More extensive stakeholder participation, have the potential to initiate new development of collaborations on excess heat between normally unrelated actors, both with and without involvements of third-party knowledge brokers. A broader participation is also expected to result in increased knowledge on how to plan to further facilitate the condition of excess heat utilisation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017. , p. 90
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1876
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143193DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-143193ISBN: 9789176854594 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-143193DiVA, id: diva2:1159331
Public defence
2017-12-15, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-11-22 Created: 2017-11-22 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Excess heat supply collaborations within the district heating sector: Drivers and barriers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Excess heat supply collaborations within the district heating sector: Drivers and barriers
2015 (English)In: Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, ISSN 1941-7012, E-ISSN 1941-7012, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 033117-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article combines the theoretical field of Industrial Symbiosis (IS) with a business model perspective to increase the knowledge about drivers and barriers behind the emergence of excess heat supply collaborations between district heating companies and industrial firms. The increased knowledge is gained by identifying and examining drivers and barriers associated with collaborative efforts to funnel excess heat produced by industrial firms into district heating grids in Sweden. An increased recovery of excess heat has the potential to reduce the primary energy demands of district heating systems. This study examines both existing and potential developments of industrial collaborations of excess heat-based district heating systems. The focus of the study consists of two Swedish cases of existing collaboration between district heating companies and pulp and paper industries as well as 16 industrial firms that all produce unused excess heat as a by-product. Confirming earlier research results, this study shows that financial issues are both the main drivers and the main barriers behind the emergence and development of inter-organisational collaborations. In addition, this study confirms earlier research that found the trust, joint problem solving, and fine-grained information transfer are important elements of successful collaboration. This study complements and clarifies these three features by including honesty and shared visions on common goals as important qualities needed for well-functioning collaborations. Combining the IS and the business model perspective has made it possible to examine more factors related to collaboration. The business model perspective has contributed with knowledge about central components of the business agreement between the collaborating parties, and the IS-perspective has contributed knowledge of the important organisational factors behind the emergence and development of long-term sustainable business agreements between firms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2015
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120359 (URN)10.1063/1.4921759 (DOI)000357684800018 ()
Available from: 2015-07-31 Created: 2015-07-31 Last updated: 2017-12-04
2. Exploratory Study of Combining Integrated Product and Services Offerings with Industrial Symbiosis in Order to Improve Excess Heat Utilization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploratory Study of Combining Integrated Product and Services Offerings with Industrial Symbiosis in Order to Improve Excess Heat Utilization
2015 (English)In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 30, p. 167-172Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper explores the implications of combining an Integrated Product and Services Offering (IPSO) (also known as PSS) with Industrial Symbiosis (IS) in order to facilitate the increased utilization of Excess Heat (EH). To do so, five different EH cases originating from an IS perspective have been investigated. Based on an IPSO-focused literature review, those five EH cases are analyzed to identify potential pros and cons, if an IPSO perspective is applied, in order to further improve EH utilization. The results indicate that applying the IPSO concept, in combination with IS, has the potential to facilitate and improve EH utilization. However, also of importance is having a clear and well-formulated business agreement, as well as mutual trust and a well-functioning dialogue between the parties involved in the EH supply collaboration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Industrial ecology (IE) Inter-Organizational Collaborations Product Service Systems (PSS) Third Party Access (TPA).
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121587 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2015.02.101 (DOI)000361471300029 ()
Available from: 2015-09-26 Created: 2015-09-26 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
3. Combining Integrated Product and Service Offerings with Industrial Symbiosis - a study of opportunities and challenges
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining Integrated Product and Service Offerings with Industrial Symbiosis - a study of opportunities and challenges
2016 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 127, p. 240-248Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article examines opportunities and challenges of combining Integrated Product and Service Offerings (IPSOs) (also known as PSS) with Industrial Symbiosis (IS) in order to facilitate an increased utilization of Excess Heat (EH). This is done by an investigation of ten different EH examples. The results indicate that the main opportunities are associated with how the IPSO and IS perspectives complement each other, and how this combination increases the understanding of both the practical and organizational factors related to EH supply collaborations. Since all EH supply collaborations are unique, they require customized solutions and thereby flexible IPSO providers. The results show that the need for an IPSO provider with knowledge of heat distribution is highest in examples where the district heating sector does not constitute one of the two original actors. Still, the benefits of a neutral third party have also proved to be desirable in examples where the district heating sector is involved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Business agreements, District heating, Industrial ecology (IE), Inter-organizational collaborations, Product Service Systems (PSS)
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143194 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.04.026 (DOI)000377311200021 ()
Available from: 2017-11-22 Created: 2017-11-22 Last updated: 2017-11-22Bibliographically approved

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