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Does density-dependent diversification mirror ecological competitive exclusion?
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Biological Sciences and the IRMACS center for interdisciplinary research, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby , BC, Canada.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
2017 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 10, article id e0184814Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Density-dependence is a term used in ecology to describe processes such as birth and death rates that are regulated by the number of individuals in a population. Evolutionary biologists have borrowed the term to describe decreasing rates of species accumulation, suggesting that speciation and extinction rates depend on the total number of species in a clade. If this analogy with ecological density-dependence holds, diversification of clades is restricted because species compete for limited resources. We hypothesize that such competition should not only affect numbers of species, but also prevent species from being phenotypically similar. Here, we present a method to detect whether competitive interactions between species have ordered phenotypic traits on a phylogeny, assuming that competition prevents related species from having identical trait values. We use the method to analyze clades of birds and mammals, with body size as the phenotypic trait. We find no sign that competition has prevented species from having the same body size. Thus, since body size is a key ecological trait and competition does not seem to be responsible for differences in body size between species, we conclude that the diversification slowdown that is prevalent in these clades is unlikely due to the ecological interference implied by the term density dependence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library Science , 2017. Vol. 12, no 10, article id e0184814
National Category
Evolutionary Biology Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141482DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184814ISI: 000412845100009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-141482DiVA, id: diva2:1158490
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 90382001Swedish Research Council, 637-2013-274Swedish Research Council Formas, 215-2012-1372
Available from: 2017-11-20 Created: 2017-11-20 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved

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