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Fostering User Involvement in Ontology Alignment and Alignment Evaluation
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. (IDA/ADIT)
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The abundance of data at our disposal empowers data-driven applications and decision making. The knowledge captured in the data, however, has not been utilized to full potential, as it is only accessible to human interpretation and data are distributed in heterogeneous repositories.

Ontologies are a key technology unlocking the knowledge in the data by providing means to model the world around us and infer knowledge implicitly captured in the data. As data are hosted by independent organizations we often need to use several ontologies and discover the relationships between them in order to support data and knowledge transfer. Broadly speaking, while ontologies provide formal representations and thus the basis, ontology alignment supplies integration techniques and thus the means to turn the data kept in distributed, heterogeneous repositories into valuable knowledge.

While many automatic approaches for creating alignments have already been developed, user input is still required for obtaining the highest-quality alignments. This thesis focuses on supporting users during the cognitively intensive alignment process and makes several contributions.

We have identified front- and back-end system features that foster user involvement during the alignment process and have investigated their support in existing systems by user interface evaluations and literature studies. We have further narrowed down our investigation to features in connection to the, arguably, most cognitively demanding task from the users’ perspective—manual validation—and have also considered the level of user expertise by assessing the impact of user errors on alignments’ quality. As developing and aligning ontologies is an error-prone task, we have focused on the benefits of the integration of ontology alignment and debugging.

We have enabled interactive comparative exploration and evaluation of multiple alignments at different levels of detail by developing a dedicated visual environment—Alignment Cubes—which allows for alignments’ evaluation even in the absence of reference alignments.

Inspired by the latest technological advances we have investigated and identified three promising directions for the application of large, high-resolution displays in the field: improving the navigation in the ontologies and their alignments, supporting reasoning and collaboration between users.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017. , p. 73
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1891
Keywords [en]
Knowledge representation, ontology, ontology engineering, ontology debugging, ontology matching, ontology matching evaluation, user interfaces, human-computer interaction, large and high-resolution displays
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143034DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-143034ISBN: 9789176854037 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-143034DiVA, id: diva2:1157649
Public defence
2018-01-26, Planck, Hus F, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2010-4759CUGS (National Graduate School in Computer Science)Swedish e‐Science Research CenterEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-IP-608142Available from: 2018-01-04 Created: 2017-11-16 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Requirements for and Evaluation of User Support for Large-Scale Ontology Alignment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Requirements for and Evaluation of User Support for Large-Scale Ontology Alignment
2015 (English)In: The Semantic Web. Latest Advances and New Domains: 12th European Semantic Web Conference, ESWC 2015, Portoroz, Slovenia, May 31 -- June 4, 2015. Proceedings, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2015, p. 3-20Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Currently one of the challenges for the ontology alignment community is the user involvement in the alignment process. At the same time, the focus of the community has shifted towards large-scale matching which introduces an additional dimension to this issue. This paper aims to provide a set of requirements that foster the user involvement for large-scale ontology alignment tasks.Further, we present and discuss the results of a literature study for 7 ontology alignments systems as well as a heuristic evaluation and an observational user study for 3 ontology alignment systems to reveal the coverage of the requirements in the systems and the support for the requirements in the user interfaces.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2015
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 9088
Keywords
knowledge representation, ontologies, ontology alignment, user interfaces
National Category
Computer Sciences Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118273 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-18818-8_1 (DOI)000362439200001 ()978-3-319-18817-1 (ISBN)978-3-319-18818-8 (ISBN)
Conference
European Semantic Web Conference
Funder
CUGS (National Graduate School in Computer Science)Swedish e‐Science Research Center
Available from: 2015-05-25 Created: 2015-05-25 Last updated: 2018-07-17Bibliographically approved
2. User validation in ontology alignment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>User validation in ontology alignment
Show others...
2016 (English)In: The Semantic Web - ISWC 2016: 15th International Semantic Web Conference, Kobe, Japan, October 17–21, 2016, Proceedings, Part I / [ed] Paul Groth, Elena Simperl, Alasdair Gray, Marta Sabou, Markus Krötzsch, Freddy Lecue, Fabian Flöck and Yolanda Gil, Cham, Switzerland: Springer Publishing Company, 2016, p. 200-217Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

User validation is one of the challenges facing the ontology alignment community, as there are limits to the quality of automated alignment algorithms. In this paper we present a broad study on user validation of ontology alignments that encompasses three distinct but interrelated aspects: the profile of the user, the services of the alignment system, and its user interface. We discuss key issues pertaining to the alignment validation process under each of these aspects, and provide an overview of how current systems address them. Finally, we use experiments from the Interactive Matching track of the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI) 2015 to assess the impact of errors in alignment validation, and how systems cope with them as function of their services.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham, Switzerland: Springer Publishing Company, 2016
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 9981
Keywords
knowledge representation, user interfaces, ontology engineering, ontology alignment
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131806 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-46523-4_13 (DOI)000389086500013 ()9783319465227 (ISBN)9783319465234 (ISBN)
Conference
International Semantic Web Conference
Funder
Swedish e‐Science Research CenterCUGS (National Graduate School in Computer Science)EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-IP-608142
Available from: 2016-10-07 Created: 2016-10-07 Last updated: 2018-07-17Bibliographically approved
3. A unified approach for aligning taxonomies and debugging taxonomies and their alignments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A unified approach for aligning taxonomies and debugging taxonomies and their alignments
2013 (English)In: The Semantic Web: Semantics and Big Data: 10th International Conference, ESWC 2013, Montpellier, France, May 26-30, 2013. Proceedings / [ed] Philipp Cimiano, Oscar Corcho, Valentina Presutti, Laura Hollink, Sebastian Rudolph, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 1-15Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With the increased use of ontologies in semantically-enabled applications, the issues of debugging and aligning ontologies have become increasingly important. The quality of the results of such applications is directly dependent on the quality of the ontologies and mappings between the ontologies they employ. A key step towards achieving high quality ontologies and mappings is discovering and resolving modeling defects, e.g., wrong or missing relations and mappings. In this paper we present a unified framework for aligning taxonomies, the most used kind of ontologies, and debugging taxonomies and their alignments, where ontology alignment is treated as a special kind of debugging. Our framework supports the detection and repairing of missing and wrong is-a structure in taxonomies, as well as the detection and repairing of missing (alignment) and wrong mappings between ontologies. Further, we implemented a system based on this framework and demonstrate its benefits through experiments with ontologies from the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 7882
Keywords
Computer science, Database management, Information storage and retrieval systems, Artificial intelligence, Database Management, Database Management, Computer Science, general
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-93643 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-38288-8_1 (DOI)978-3-642-38287-1 (ISBN)978-3-642-38288-8 (ISBN)
Conference
Extended Semantic Web Conference
Funder
Swedish e‐Science Research CenterSwedish Research Council, 2010-4759CUGS (National Graduate School in Computer Science)
Available from: 2013-06-04 Created: 2013-06-04 Last updated: 2018-07-17Bibliographically approved
4. Applications of Large Displays: Advancing User Support in Large Scale Ontology Alignment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applications of Large Displays: Advancing User Support in Large Scale Ontology Alignment
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the Doctoral Consortium at the 15th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2016) Kobe, Japan, October 18, 2016 / [ed] Philippe Cudre-Mauroux, Natasha Noy and Riichiro Mizoguchi, Aachen, Germany: CEUR Workshop Proceedings , 2016, p. 50-57Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Producing alignments of the highest quality requires ‘humans in the loop’, however, user involvement is currently one of the challenges for the ontology alignment community. Ontology alignment is a cognitively intensive task and could be efficiently supported by user interfaces encompassing well-designed visualizations and interaction techniques. This work investigates the applicationof large, high-resolution displays to improve users’ cognitive support and identifies several promising directions for their application - improving ontologies’ and alignments’ navigation, supporting users’ thinking process and collaboration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aachen, Germany: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2016
Series
CEUR Workshop Proceedings, ISSN 1613-0073 ; 1733
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-134161 (URN)
Conference
Doctoral Consortium at the 15th International Semantic Web Conference, October 18, Kobe, Japan
Funder
CUGS (National Graduate School in Computer Science)Swedish e‐Science Research CenterEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-IP-608142
Available from: 2017-01-26 Created: 2017-01-26 Last updated: 2018-01-13
5. Experiences from the Anatomy track in the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiences from the Anatomy track in the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative
2017 (English)In: Journal of Biomedical Semantics, ISSN 2041-1480, E-ISSN 2041-1480, Vol. 8, article id 56Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: One of the longest running tracks in the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative is the Anatomy track which focuses on aligning two anatomy ontologies. The Anatomy track was started in 2005. In 2005 and 2006 the task in this track was to align the Foundational Model of Anatomy and the OpenGalen Anatomy Model. Since 2007 the ontologies used in the track are the Adult Mouse Anatomy and a part of the NCI Thesaurus. Since 2015 the data in the Anatomy track is also used in the Interactive track of the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative.

Results: In this paper we focus on the Anatomy track in the years 2007-2016 and the Anatomy part of the Interactive track in 2015-2016. We describe the data set and the changes it went through during the years. Further, we give an overview of all systems that participated in the track and the techniques they have used. We discuss the performance results of the systems and summarize the general trends.

Conclusions: About 50 systems have participated in the Anatomy track. Many different techniques were used. The most popular matching techniques are string-based strategies and structure-based techniques. Many systems also use auxiliary information. The quality of the alignment has increased for the best performing systems since the beginning of the track and more and more systems check the coherence of the proposed alignment and implement a repair strategy.Further, interacting with an oracle is beneficial.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2017
Keywords
ontologies, ontology matching, OAEI, anatomy
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139775 (URN)10.1186/s13326-017-0166-5 (DOI)000416915300001 ()29202830 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish e‐Science Research CenterCUGS (National Graduate School in Computer Science)EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-IP-608142
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish e-Science Research Centre (SeRC); Swedish national graduate school in computer science (CUGS); EU project VALCRI [FP7-IP-608142]

Available from: 2017-08-21 Created: 2017-08-21 Last updated: 2018-01-13
6. Alignment Cubes: Towards Interactive Visual Exploration and Evaluation of Multiple Ontology Alignments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alignment Cubes: Towards Interactive Visual Exploration and Evaluation of Multiple Ontology Alignments
2017 (English)In: The Semantic Web: ISWC 2017 - 16th International Semantic Web Conference, Vienna, Austria, October 21-25, 2017, Proceedings, Part I / [ed] Claudia d'Amato, Miriam Fernandez, Valentina A. M. Tamma, Freddy Lecue, Philippe Cudre-Mauroux, Juan F. Sequeda, Christoph Lange and Jeff Heflin, Cham, Switzerland: Springer Publishing Company, 2017, p. 400-417Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Ontology alignment is an area of active research where many algorithms and approaches are being developed. Their performance is usually evaluated by comparing the produced alignments to a reference alignment in terms of precision, recall and F-measure. These measures, however, only provide an overall assessment of the quality of the alignments, but do not reveal differences and commonalities between alignments at a finer-grained level such as, e.g., regions or individual mappings. Furthermore, reference alignments are often unavailable, which makes the comparative exploration of alignments at different levels of granularity even more important. Making such comparisons efficient calls for a “human-in-the-loop” approach, best supported through interactive visual representations of alignments. Our approach extends a recent tool, Matrix Cubes, used for visualizing dense dynamic networks. We first identify use cases for ontology alignment evaluation that can benefit from interactive visualization, and then detail how our Alignment Cubes support interactive exploration of multiple ontology alignments. We demonstrate the usefulness of Alignment Cubes by describing visual exploration scenarios, showing how Alignment Cubes support common tasks identified in the use cases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham, Switzerland: Springer Publishing Company, 2017
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 10587
Keywords
Ontology alignment evaluation, Visual exploration, Multiple alignment comparison
National Category
Computer Sciences Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-141986 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-68288-4_24 (DOI)9783319682877 (ISBN)9783319682884 (ISBN)9783319682884 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish e‐Science Research CenterCUGS (National Graduate School in Computer Science)EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, P7-IP-608142
Available from: 2017-10-16 Created: 2017-10-16 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved

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