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Att leva med HIV – patienters upplevelser av bemötande från hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal: En allmän litteraturstudie
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
2017 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Humant immunbristvirus (HIV) är en kronisk virusinfektion och en global pandemi. Med rätt behandling kan personer med HIV leva ett normallångt liv, men utan behandling övergår infektionen i acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Trots ökad kunskap om HIV blir personer med HIV ofta stigmatiserade och diskriminerade. Vårdpersonal har visats besitta bristfällig kunskap om HIV, stigmatiserande attityder gentemot patienter med HIV samt motvilja att vårda dem. HIV-relaterad stigmatisering motverkar minskning av smittspridningen och främjande av god hälsa för patientgruppen.

Syfte: Sammanställa hur patienter med HIV beskriver upplevelser av bemötandet från hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal inom hälso- och sjukvård i vetenskaplig litteratur.

Metod: En litteraturöversikt baserad på 13 kvalitativa artiklar och två med mixad metod hämtade från databaserna PubMed och CINAHL. Artiklarna kvalitetsgranskades och analyserades genom metasyntes. Materialet sammanställdes och tolkades genom Evans beskrivande metasyntes-modell.

Resultat: Resultatet visade både positiva och negativa upplevelser av vårdpersonalens bemötande. Patienter beskrev att ökad kunskap och erfarenhet, samt visad empati, acceptans och respekt från vårdpersonal gav ett bättre bemötande. Negativa upplevelser var vanligt förekommande och beskrevs i form av bristfällig information, rädsla för smitta, stigmatisering, fördomar, stereotypering, diskriminering, nekad vård, inadekvat vård och bristande sekretess. Upplevelsen av bemötandet påverkade vårdupplevelsen, benägenheten att söka vård i framtiden och följsamheten till behandling.  

Slutsatser: Kunskaps- och erfarenhetsnivå bland vårdpersonal har stor betydelse för hur bemötandet upplevs av patienter med HIV. Positiva upplevelser kopplades till kunnig och erfaren vårdpersonal. Negativa upplevelser av stigmatisering och diskriminering på grund av vårdpersonalens okunskap, rädsla och fördomar kvarstår. Mer utbildning om HIV bland vårdpersonal behövs för att minska stigmatiseringen kring patientgruppen och bedriva vård på lika villkor för dessa patienter.

Abstract [en]

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a chronic viral infection and a global pandemic. With the right treatment, people with HIV can live a normal life. Without treatment, the infection turns into acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Despite increased knowledge about HIV, people with HIV often get stigmatised and discriminated. Health personnel have been shown to have poor knowledge about HIV, hold stigmatising attitudes towards patients with HIV and be reluctant to care for them. HIV-related stigmatisation is counterproductive in reducing the spread of HIV infection and in promoting good health for patients with HIV.

Aim: To compile how patients with HIV describe experiences of interactions with health personnel in healthcare settings in scientific literature.

Methods: A literature review based on 13 qualitative articles and two with mixed method that were collected from the databases PubMed and CINAHL. The articles were quality-reviewed and analysed using metasynthesis. The material was compiled and interpreted using Evan's descriptive metasynthesis model.

Results: The result showed both positive and negative experiences of interactions with health personnel. Patients described that increased knowledge and experience, as well as demonstrated empathy, acceptance and respect from health personnel, were connected to a better experience. Negative experiences were common and described in terms of insufficient information, fear of contagion, stigmatisation, prejudices, stereotyping, discrimination, denied care, inadequate care and breaches of confidentiality. The attitude, behaviour and treatment by health personnel affected how patients viewed the healthcare experience, the tendency to seek care in the future and the patients’ adherence to treatment.

Conclusions: Knowledge and experience among health personnel are of major importance for how the interaction is experienced by patients with HIV. Positive experiences were linked to knowledgeable and experienced health personnel. Negative experiences of stigmatisation and discrimination due to the health personnel’s ignorance, fear and prejudices persist. More education about HIV among health personnel is needed to reduce stigmatisation and to provide care on equal terms for these patients.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. , p. 32
Keyword [en]
HIV, HIV infections, professional-patient relation, social stigma, discrimination
Keyword [sv]
HIV, HIV-infektioner, vårdare-patient relationer, socialt stigma, diskriminering
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-333598OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-333598DiVA, id: diva2:1157258
Subject / course
Caring Sciences
Educational program
Registered Nurse Programme
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2017-11-15 Created: 2017-11-15 Last updated: 2017-11-15Bibliographically approved

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