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Conceptual Design of Complex Hydromechanical Transmissions
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis explores the conceptual design process of complex hydromechanical transmissions for mobile working machines. Efficient methods for design optimisation and controller development are presented to support the final concept selection.

In the endeavour to develop new fuel-efficient driveline solutions for construction machines and off-road equipment new complex hydromechanical transmission concepts are being investigated. This pursuit is driven by stricter emission legislation, high fuel prices and a desire for a greener image both for customers and manufacturers. The trend towards more complex transmission architectures increases the need for more sophisticated product development methods. Complex multiple-mode transmissions are difficult to design and prototype and can be realised in a great number of architectures. By introducing a secondary energy storage in the machine the design space expands further for both hardware and software. There is accordingly a need for more reliable concept assessment in early design stages and the possibility to support concurrent engineering throughout the development process.

Previous research on the design and development of hydromechanical transmissions has been limited to analysis of fixed concept designs or design optimization using very simple performance indicators. Existing methodologies for electrified on-road vehicles are not suitable for off-road working machines with hydromechanical transmissions and hydraulic energy storage.

The proposed conceptual design process uses detailed quasi-static simulation models and targets to optimise the fuel efficiency of the specific machine specifications and operations. It is also shown how high-speed dynamic simulations can be used for controller development and hardware-in-the-loop simulations to support an efficient product design process. The methods are demonstrated for typical use cases targeting new transmission development for construction machines. Software control development is also treated using control optimisation and real-time simulation. Finally a novel hybrid hydromechanical motion system is presented for which an efficient design process is crucial to its end performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017. , 70 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1883
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142895DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-142895ISBN: 9789176854471 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-142895DiVA: diva2:1155754
Public defence
2017-12-08, ACAS, Hus A, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

In the printed verison the series name Linköping studies in Arts and Science is incorrect. The correct series name is Linköping studies in science and technology. Dissertations.

Available from: 2017-11-09 Created: 2017-11-09 Last updated: 2017-11-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Design Optimization of Complex Hydromechanical Transmissions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design Optimization of Complex Hydromechanical Transmissions
2013 (English)In: Journal of mechanical design (1990), ISSN 1050-0472, Vol. 135, no 9, 091005-1-091005-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Demands for higher fuel efficiency for off-highway applications motivate manufacturers to replace existing drive transmissions with more complex, high-efficiency transmissions. Increased intelligence and more advanced architectures are, however, more difficult to design and prototype. This leads to longer product development processes and a greater need for early product evaluation. The great variety of existing concepts also requires a methodology to support the choice of architecture. This paper proposes a design methodology for complex hydromechanical transmissions based on optimization. The main objective is to maximize energy efficiency and adapt the design to suit the typical operating behavior of the application. The methodology is also implemented on a multiple mode transmission concept sui for a heavy wheel loader application. It is shown that the design of the gearbox heavily influences the energy consumption and the necessity to use optimization when designing the gearbox.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ASME Press, 2013
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99379 (URN)10.1115/1.4024732 (DOI)000326172400006 ()
Available from: 2013-10-17 Created: 2013-10-17 Last updated: 2017-11-09Bibliographically approved
2. Optimisation and Concept Sensitivity of Continuously Variable Hydromechanical Transmissions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimisation and Concept Sensitivity of Continuously Variable Hydromechanical Transmissions
2013 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Demands for better fuel efficiency for mobile working machines motivate the manufacturers to replace existing drive transmissions with more complex, high-efficiency transmissions. Hydromechanical power-split transmissions can offer high energy efficiency throughout the speed range and allows a decoupling of the speed of the combustion engine and the vehicle speed. This paper deals with the design of complex hydromechanical power-split transmissions and suggests an optimisation-based design methodology to minimise the energy consumption and manufacturing cost of the gearbox. The methodology is applied to a multiple mode power-split transmission which is designed to suit the requirements and typical operating behaviour of a heavy wheel loader. It is shown how important the design of the transmission is to its characteristics and how manufacturing costs can be weighed against energy efficiency.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99380 (URN)
Conference
8th International Conference on Fluid Power Trans- mission and Control, April 9-11, Hangzhou, China
Available from: 2013-10-17 Created: 2013-10-17 Last updated: 2017-11-09Bibliographically approved
3. Modular Design of Hydromechanical Transmissions for Mobile Working Machines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modular Design of Hydromechanical Transmissions for Mobile Working Machines
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the 13th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power,(SICFP2013), June 3-5, 2013, Linköping, Sweden, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, 113-119 p.Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper demonstrates an optimisation-based method to design modular gearboxes scalable for a range of applications. The design is adapted to the typical operating behaviours of the reference vehicles and considers the manufacturing costs of the gearboxes. Hydromechanical continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) are today strong candidates to replace drive line transmissions based on fuel-thirsty torque converters in many mobile working machines. The advantages include wide range of torque/speed ratios, high energy efficiency throughout the speed range and decoupling of the engine speed and the vehicle speed. Advanced multiple mode CVTs, however, are difficult to evaluate early in the product development process due to the complex architectures and the great variety of possible concepts. There is consequently an increased need for methods to design, compare and evaluate the transmission concepts. To decrease the development and manufacturing costs, there is also a need for scalable transmission concepts that can be used in several applications of different classes. The results show the proficiency of the methodology compared to a manual design process and that the energy efficiency of the transmissions are heavy coupled to the designs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013
Series
Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3686 (print), 1650-3740 (online) ; 92
Keyword
Hydromechanical transmissions, Power-split, Design optimisation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99381 (URN)10.3384/ecp1392a12 (DOI)978-91-7519-572-8 (ISBN)
Conference
Proceedings of the 13th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, (SICFP2013), June 3-5, 2013, Linköping, Sweden
Available from: 2013-10-17 Created: 2013-10-17 Last updated: 2017-11-09Bibliographically approved
4. Simulation Aided Design and Testing of Hydromechanical Transmissions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation Aided Design and Testing of Hydromechanical Transmissions
2014 (English)In: The 9th JFPS International Symposium on Fluid Power, Matsue, 2014, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper demonstrates the use of high-speed simulation in transmission conceptual design and presents a transmission test bed for hardware-in-the-loop simulations of hydromechanical transmission concepts. Complex transmissions, such as multiple-mode hydromechanical transmissions and hydraulic hybrid transmissions, present new difficulties and costs in the development process. There is today a greater demand for more efficient product development and more work has shifted towards simulation. The Hopsan simulation package allows robust, high-speed simulations suitable for both offline and hardware-in-the-loop simulation. New simulation models for hydromechanical transmissions are developed and used to simulate a known two-mode transmission concept. The same concept is also tested in hardware-in-the-loop simulations in the proposed transmission test bed. Results show good agreement with the hardware tests and highlight the proficiency of the simulation tools.

Keyword
Hydromechanical Transmission, Hardware-in-the-loop, Hopsan
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126561 (URN)4-931070-10-8 (ISBN)
Conference
the 9th JFPS International Symposium on Fluid Power in Matsue, Shimane Japan, on October 28-31, 2014
Available from: 2016-03-30 Created: 2016-03-30 Last updated: 2017-11-09
5. Mode Shifting in Hybrid Hydromechanical Transmissions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mode Shifting in Hybrid Hydromechanical Transmissions
2015 (English)In: ASME/BATH 2015 Symposium on Fluid Power and Motion Control, ASME Press, 2015, 13- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Demands for low cost sustainable solutions have increased the use of and interest in complex hydromechanical transmissions for heavy off-road vehicles. In transmissions with multiplemodes, an important condition is to maintain the tractive force during the mode shifting event. For hybrid hydromechanical transmissions, with a direct connection to a hydraulic accumulator, the impressed system pressure caused by the hydraulic accumulator has not yet been observed to interfere with this condition. In this paper, a black box model approach is used to modify the hydraulic system after obtaining knowledge regarding how it is affected by a mode shift. A comparative study is carried out where a full vehicle model of a mobile working machine is simulated with two different hydraulic systems. The results show that different system solutions imply different demands on the included components, and that the mode shifting event is not a negligible factor in heavy hydraulic hybrid vehicles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ASME Press, 2015
Keyword
Mode shifting, hydromechanical transmissions, fluid power, heavy construction machinery
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126556 (URN)10.1115/FPMC2015-9583 (DOI)000373970500045 ()978-0-7918-5723-6 (ISBN)
Conference
ASME/BATH 2015 Symposium on Fluid Power and Motion Control, Chicago, Illinois, USA, October 12–14, 2015
Projects
Research on Hydromechanical Transmissions and Hybrid Motion systems, RHYTHM
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P39367-1
Available from: 2016-03-30 Created: 2016-03-30 Last updated: 2017-11-09
6. A novel hydromechanical hybrid motion system for construction machines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel hydromechanical hybrid motion system for construction machines
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Fluid Power, ISSN 1439-9776, Vol. 18, no 1, 17-28 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper deals with a novel type of hybrid motion system for construction machines based on a common pressure rail shared between a hydromechanical power-split transmission and secondary controlled work hydraulics. A construction machine with driveline and work functions is a complex coupled motion system and the design of an effective hybrid system needs to take both subsystems into account. Studies on energy efficient hybrid systems for construction machines have hitherto principally focused on one subsystem at a time - work hydraulics or driveline. The paper demonstrates a use case with a specific transmission concept proposal for a medium-sized wheel loader. The system is modelled and simulated using an optimal energy management strategy based on dynamic programming. The results show the benefits of a throttle-free bidirectional link between the machine's subsystems and the energy storage, while taking advantage of the complex power flows of the power-split transmission.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon, UK: Taylor & Francis, 2017
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142329 (URN)10.1080/14399776.2016.1210423 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-10-26 Created: 2017-10-26 Last updated: 2017-11-09Bibliographically approved

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