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Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans: from source of emission to human exposure
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which are ubiquitous in modern life and the environment, are the major source for polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs). The knowledge about PBDD/Fs is lim-ited compared to other environmental pollutants, even though PBDD/Fs show similar toxicity as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) which are considered to be among the most toxic man-made substances. The aim of the thesis was to provide a better understanding of PBDD/Fs by investigating the occurrence and distribution of PBDD/Fs in the following matrices: soot and gas from an accidental fire site which is a typical source of emission, blubber from marine mammals living in both far remote areas as well as areas close to anthropogenic sources, and finally in human milk from ten nursing mothers.

PBDD/Fs was detected in blubber from pilot whales sampled around Faroe Islands, which proved the occurrence in marine mammals in a far remote area. The findings of PBDD/Fs in blubber from Baltic ringed seals showed slightly higher concentrations compared to the pilot whales, which is expected since the Baltic Sea in among the world’s most contam-inated water areas. In the pilot whales and the ringed seals, the average contribution from PBDD/Fs to the total (PCDD/F+PBDD/F) Total Equiv-alent Quantity (TEQ) was low, (1-8%). In gas and soot samples from the accidental fire site, PBDD/Fs were detected in all samples and the contri-bution of PBDD/Fs to the total TEQ was close to 100%. In the human milk samples, PBDD/Fs were detected in all samples and the average con-tribution of PBDD/Fs to the total TEQ was 40%. The results indicate that PBDD/Fs are of concern for human exposure, and should be monitored together with PCDD/Fs in future studies. Moreover, the occurrence at ac-cidental fire sites indicate that PBDD/Fs are a source for occupational ex-posure for firefighters and other professionals. The impact from PBDD/Fs on marine mammalians seems to be of less concern.

Abstract [sv]

Konsekvenserna av giftiga och långlivade organiska föroreningar är många och allvarliga, och de påverkar både miljön och människans hälsa. Ett av de giftigaste ämnena som existerar är klorerade dioxiner och furaner (PCDD/Fs). Det finns även bromerade dioxiner och furaner (PBDD/Fs) men studierna av dessa, och därmed även kunskapen, är begränsade trots att PBDD/Fs och PCDD/Fs uppvisar liknande toxiska egenskaper. Den domi-nerande källan till PBDD/Fs är förbränningsrelaterade processer av material innehållande bromerade flamskyddsmedel.

Syftet med denna avhandling var att öka kunskapen om PBDD/Fs genom att undersöka förekomsten av PBDD/Fs i olika miljöer och matriser, och studierna spänner över lägenhetsbränder, till marina däggdjur och till am-mande kvinnor. I delarbete 1 studerades förekomsten av PBDD/Fs i gas och sot då olika släcktekniker används för att bekämpa lägenhetsbränder. Lä-genhetsbränderna representerade förekomsten av PBDD/Fs vid en känd punktkälla. Resultaten från försöken visade högre koncentrationer av PBDD/Fs än av PCDD/Fs, vilket också indikerar att PBDD/Fs är en relevant grupp av kemikalier att inkludera vid riskbedömning för yrkesgrupper som återkommande arbetar vid olycksbränder. I delarbete 2 undersöktes hur PBDD/Fs finns spridda till marina däggdjur. Genom att fastställa att PBDD/Fs finns spridda till grindvalar från vattnen utanför Färöarna, indi-keras att PBDD/Fs har förmåga att transporteras över stora sträckor samt har de persistenta och bioackumulerande egenskaper som är karaktäristiska för traditionella miljögifter. I delarbete 3 studerades förekomsten av PBDD/Fs i vikare (ringsäl) från Östersjön, under perioden 1974-2015. Fö-rekomsten av PBDD/Fs i vikare kan även ses som en indikator för sprid-ningen av PBDD/Fs till näringskedjan i Östersjön. I delarbete 4 studerades människors exponering för PBDD/Fs genom att undersöka förekomsten i bröstmjölk. Resultaten visade så pass höga koncentrationer av PBDD/Fs i mjölken att den genomsnittliga toxiska effekten från dessa var nästan lika hög som från PCDD/Fs. Då spädbarn är känsliga för exponering av miljö-gifter, är de höga koncentrationerna av PBDD/Fs i bröstmjölken oroväck-ande. Sammanfattningsvis visar denna avhandling att PBDD/Fs är förekom-mande i olika miljöer och matriser, och att det primärt är människors ex-ponering som är oroande. Dels handlar det om risken för den generella ex-poneringen av människan som fynden i bröstmjölk indikerar, men även om den yrkesrelaterade exponeringen som brandmän m.fl. kan utsättas för.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University , 2018. , p. 84
Series
Örebro Studies in Chemistry, ISSN 1651-4270 ; 20
Keyword [en]
PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs, marine mammal, combustion, fire, human milk, occupational exposure
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62158ISBN: 978-91-7529-221-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-62158DiVA, id: diva2:1155143
Public defence
2018-01-12, Örebro universitet, Billbergska huset, Hörsal B, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-11-07 Created: 2017-11-07 Last updated: 2018-01-26Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Occurrence of brominated dioxins in a study using various firefighting methods
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occurrence of brominated dioxins in a study using various firefighting methods
2017 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 599-600, p. 1213-1221Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of different firefighting methods influences how fast a fire is extinguished and how fast the temperature drops in the area affected by the fire. These differences may also influence the formation of harmful pollutants during firefighting of an accidental fire. The aim was to study occurrence of brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) in gas and soot during five fire scenarios resembling a small apartment fire and where different firefighting methods were used. Samples of gas and soot were taken both during the buildup of the fire and during the subsequent extinguishing of the fire while using different firefighting methods (nozzle, compressed air foam system, cutting extinguisher) and an extinguishing additive. New containers equipped with identical sets of combustible material were used for the five tests. The use of different firefighting methods and extinguishing additive induced variations in concentration and congener profiles of detected PBDD/Fs. The concentration range of Sigma PBDD/Fs in gas was 4020-18,700 pg/m(3), and in soot 76-4092 pg/m(2). PBDFs were the predominant congeners and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF was the most abundant congener. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) were also monitored. The PBDD/Fs contributed with in average 97% to the total (PCDD/Fs plus PBDD/Fs) toxic equivalents, in soot and gas. During extinguishing, the shorter time the temperature was around 300 degrees C, the lower occurrence of PBDD/Fs. In the study the firefighting methods showed a difference in how effectively they induced a temperature decrease below 300 degrees C in the fire zone during quenching, where cutting extinguishing using additive and the compressed air foam system showed the fastest drop in temperature.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keyword
PBDD/F, PCDD/F, Fire, Cutting extinguisher, Foam, Additive, Nozzle, Formation
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-59123 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.087 (DOI)000405253500018 ()28514839 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85019068316 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency
Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2017-12-18Bibliographically approved
2. Occurrence of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in pilot whales (Globicephala melas) caught around the Faroe Islands
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occurrence of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in pilot whales (Globicephala melas) caught around the Faroe Islands
2018 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 195, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Blubber from Faroese pilot whales (Globicephala melas) was analysed for brominated dioxins PBDD/Fs, with a subset also analysed for chlorinated dioxins, PCDD/Fs. The studied individuals were restricted to juvenile male whales sampled in the Faroe Islands during the period 1997–2013. Among the PBDD/Fs, the furans were predominant, although the relative abundance of various congeners differed between samples. Furans accounted for, on average, 79% of the ∑PBDD/Fs in the samples, with 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF the most abundant congener, found in half of the analysed pilot whales. The concentration range for ∑PBDD/Fs among the samples was 0.080–71 pg/g l.w. (lipid weight), and the sum of toxic equivalents ranged from 0.0039 to 4.7 pg TEQ/g l.w. No relationship was found between PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs. In addition, 20 pilot whale samples from the period 2010–2013 were analysed for PBDEs. Several PBDE congeners were found in all of the sampled pilot whales, and at noticeably higher levels than PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs. The ∑PBDEs ranged from 140 to 1900 ng/g l.w., with BDE #47 the most abundant congener detected in the samples. Results from the present study were then compared with data from previous studies on pilot wales to investigate temporal trends between 1986 and 2013. The comparison indicated that PBDE concentrations in juvenile males have decreased from 1996 to the latest observations in 2013. No relationship between the concentration levels of PBDD/Fs and PBDEs in the sampled pilot whales could be identified, which indicates possible differences in the metabolism of, or exposure to, PBDEs and PBDD/Fs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keyword
PBDD/Fs, PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, Pilot whale blubber, Faroe Islands
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63414 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.12.044 (DOI)000424172400002 ()29248748 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85037990841 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

Danish Environmental Protection Agency as part of the environmental support program Dancea - Danish Cooperation for Environment in the Arctic

Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2018-02-22Bibliographically approved
3. Temporal trends of PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs, PBDEs and PCBs in ringed seals from the Baltic Sea (Pusa hispida botnica) between 1974 and 2015
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal trends of PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs, PBDEs and PCBs in ringed seals from the Baltic Sea (Pusa hispida botnica) between 1974 and 2015
2018 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 616-617, p. 1374-1383Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Temporal trends in exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were assessed in 22 pooled samples gathered from 69 individuals of Baltic ringed seal (Pusa hispida botnica) from 1974 to 2015. Samples were analysed for polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). No previous study has reported on the occurrence of PBDD/Fs in marine mammals in the Baltic Sea. Concentrations of pollutants in Baltic ringed seal, a marine mammal and top predator, can be used as an indicator of pollutants concentrations in the Baltic region.

Visual inspection of data did not show any temporal trends for PBDD/Fs, while the PCDD/Fs and PCBs showed decreasing concentrations between 1974 and 2015. PBDEs increased until the end of the 1990s and then decreased until the end of the period. ∑ PBDD/Fs ranged from 0.5–52.3 pg/g lipid weight (l.w.) (0.08–4.8 pg TEQ/g l.w.), with 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF contributing on average 61% to ∑ PBDD/Fs. ∑ PCDD/Fs ranged from 103 to 1480 pg/g l.w. (39–784 pg TEQ/g l.w.), with 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF showing the highest average concentrations. PBDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQ) contributed on average 1.1% to the total (PBDD/F + PCDD/F) TEQ. The ∑ PBDEs concentration range was 18.7–503 ng/g l.w., with BDE #47 the predominant congener. The concentration range for ∑ PCBs was 2.8–40.1 μg/g l.w., with #138 and #153 the most abundant congeners. Visual inspection of the data showed decreasing concentrations for all compound groups except PBDD/Fs. A slight increase in the PBDD/Fs concentrations was observed from 2004 onwards. This observation needs to be investigated further.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keyword
Dioxins, Furans, POPs, Marine mammal
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63413 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.178 (DOI)000424121800137 ()29066193 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85038955003 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

Swedish Environmental Protection Agency  2213-15-022

Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2018-02-22Bibliographically approved
4. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and Stockholm Convention POPs in human milk: evaluation of the effects of breastfeeding duration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and Stockholm Convention POPs in human milk: evaluation of the effects of breastfeeding duration
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63415 (URN)
Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2017-12-18Bibliographically approved

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