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Cost-effective Communication and Control Architectures for Active Low Voltage Grids
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems. (Power System Operation and Control)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2014-0444
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The monitoring and control of low voltage distribution grids has historically been disregarded due to the unidirectional flow of power. However, nowadays the massive integration of distributed energy resources into distribution grids, such as solar photovoltaics, distributed storage, electric vehicles and demand response programs, presents some challenges. For instance, the unidirectional top-down power flow is being replaced by power flows in any direction: top-down and bottom-up. This paradigm shift adds extra regulatory, economic, and technical complexity for the Distribution System Operators (DSO). Thus to overcome the possible operational constraints, thermal limits, or voltage problems in the grid, an update of the existing electricity infrastructures is required. In response to this new situation, this thesis investigates the cost-effective communication and control architectures that are required for active low voltage grid monitoring and control applications, considering the regulatory constraints and the efficient utilization of the assets from a DSO’s perspective. The solutions include: i) optimal sensor placement configuration to perform low voltage state estimation, ii) optimal metering infrastructure designs for active low voltage monitoring applications, iii) coordinated control strategies to allow the integration of microgrid-like structures into the distribution grids, iv) optimal placement of actuators for operating the control strategies, v) a multiagent-based control solution for self-healing and feeder reconfiguration applications, and vi) a framework model and simulations to assess the reliability of the ICT infrastructure that enables the monitoring and control applications. As concluding remark, since the deployment of technology at low voltage grids is restricted to assets owned by the DSO, the operability of the grid is limited. This condition makes it so that the required communication and control enhancement solutions shall prioritize cost-effectiveness over comprehensiveness and complexity. Thus, the results from the presented studies show that it is essential to perform thorough cost-benefit analyses of the potential improvement solutions for each grid, because this will allow deploying the right technology only at the necessary locations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2017. , 69 p.
Series
TRITA-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2017:160
Keyword [en]
Active low voltage distribution grids, CAPEX & OPEX, communication & control architectures, cost-effectiveness, MPC, multiagent systems, photovoltaics, voltage control.
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-217271ISBN: 978-91-7729-588-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-217271DiVA: diva2:1154896
Public defence
2017-12-18, Kollegiesal, Brinellvägen 8, KTH-huset, floor 4, KTH Campus, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
SweGRIDS - Swedish Centre for Smart Grids and Energy Storage
Note

QC 20171106

Available from: 2017-11-06 Created: 2017-11-06 Last updated: 2017-11-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A Method to Place Meters in Active Low Voltage Distribution Networks using BPSO Algorithm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Method to Place Meters in Active Low Voltage Distribution Networks using BPSO Algorithm
2016 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes a method to be used by a DSOto optimally place sensors at MV/LV substation and some lowvoltage cable distribution cabinets. This method aims to improvethe estimation of the grid states at low voltage distributionnetworks. This method formulates a multi-objective optimizationproblem to determine the optimal meter placementconfiguration. This formulation minimizes the low voltage stateestimation error and the cost associated to a particular meterdeployment configuration. The method uses Binary ParticleSwarm Optimization (BPSO) to solve the optimization problemand it has been tested on a network based on the Cigré LVbenchmark grid. The simulation results show that the methodcan be applied to both situations where smart metermeasurements are available and situations where they are not. Inthe latter situation the measurements are replaced by pseudomeasurements,which represent meter readings by using smartmeter historical data and prediction models.

Keyword
Active Low Voltage Distribution Networks, BPSO, Meter Placement Problem, Multi-objective Optimization, Observability Analysis, State Estimation
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-180710 (URN)000382485600061 ()2-s2.0-84986588599 (Scopus ID)
Conference
19th Power Systems Computational Conference, PSCC, June 2016 in Genova, Italy.
Note

QC 20161017

Available from: 2016-01-21 Created: 2016-01-21 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
2. A Method to Design Optimal Communication Architectures in Advanced Metering Infrastructures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Method to Design Optimal Communication Architectures in Advanced Metering Infrastructures
Show others...
2017 (English)In: IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, ISSN 1751-8687, E-ISSN 1751-8695, Vol. 11, no 2, 339-346 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes a method to determine the optimal communication architecture in advance metering infrastructures (AMI). The method starts by indicating suitable groups of meters that share similar characteristics such as distance to the secondary substation and mutual proximity. Then it connects each group of meters to the AMI-Head End through a communication architecture formed by wireless and Power Line Communication (PLC) technologies. The optimality criterion takes into account the Capital Expenditures (CAPEX), Operational Expenditures (OPEX) and the Quality of Service (QoS) in the communication architecture. The method is tested on a LV network based on real utility data provided by EU FP7 DISCERN project partners. These tests show that the method is consistent with planning foresight and can be useful to assist in the AMI communication architecture designing process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IET Digital Library, 2017
Keyword
AMI, Combinatorial Optimization, Data Concentrator, K-means, Linear Semi-Assignment Problem, PRIME, PLC, Smart Grid, Virtual Data Concentrator
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-192608 (URN)10.1049/iet-gtd.2016.0481 (DOI)000396553400005 ()2-s2.0-85010837023 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 308913SweGRIDS - Swedish Centre for Smart Grids and Energy Storage
Note

QC 20170517

Available from: 2016-09-16 Created: 2016-09-16 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
3. Coordinated Microgrid Investment and Planning Process Considering the System Operator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coordinated Microgrid Investment and Planning Process Considering the System Operator
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 200, 132-140 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nowadays, a significant number of distribution systems are facing problems to accommodate more photovoltaic (PV) capacity, namely due to the overvoltages during the daylight periods. This has an impact on the private investments in distributed energy resources (DER), since it occurs exactly when the PV prices are becoming attractive, and the opportunity to an energy transition based on solar technologies is being wasted. In particular, this limitation of the networks is a barrier for larger consumers, such as commercial and public buildings, aiming at investing in PV capacity and start operating as microgrids connected to the MV network. To address this challenge, this paper presents a coordinated approach to the microgrid investment and planning problem, where the system operator and the microgrid owner collaborate to improve the voltage control capabilities of the distribution network, increasing the PV potential. The results prove that this collaboration has the benefit of increasing the value of the microgrid investments while improving the quality of service of the system and it should be considered in the future regulatory framework.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-206827 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.05.076 (DOI)2-s2.0-85019166054 (Scopus ID)
Funder
SweGRIDS - Swedish Centre for Smart Grids and Energy Storage
Note

QC 20170621

Available from: 2017-05-08 Created: 2017-05-08 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
4. Comparative Study of Optimal Controller Placement Considering Uncertainty in PV Growth and Distribution Grid Expansion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparative Study of Optimal Controller Placement Considering Uncertainty in PV Growth and Distribution Grid Expansion
2018 (English)In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 155C, 48-57 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Distributed generation (DG) and especially grid-connected residential photovoltaic (PV) systems areemerging and high penetration levels of these can have an adverse impact on several low voltage (LV)distribution grids in terms of power quality and reliability. In order to reduce that effect in a cost-effectivemanner, the traditional distribution grid planning process is being reengineered by incorporating the gridcontrol operations and considering the uncertainties e.g., DG power, demand and urban/rural expansionplans. One of the challenges is to determine if the required technology deployment to operate the gridscan provide a better solution in terms of quality and cost than the traditional approach, which is prin-cipally based on cable reinforcement and change of transformers. In addition, if controllers were to bedeployed, it would be important to determine where they should be placed and at what stage of theexpansion planning, especially when the planning is assumed to be non-deterministic.Therefore, following this situation, in this paper we propose an optimal way to deploy and to operateutility’s controllable resources at the distribution grid and additionally we consider the uncertaintiesrelated to PV growth and distribution grid expansion. Thus, we include the non-deterministic multistageperspective to the controller placement problem. Furthermore, we perform a techno-economic analysis ofthe results and we show that an optimal controller placement allows removing the overvoltage problemsarising in the LV grid in a more cost-effective way compared to a typical traditional grid reinforcementapproach.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-215872 (URN)10.1016/j.epsr.2017.10.001 (DOI)2-s2.0-85030835113 (Scopus ID)
Funder
SweGRIDS - Swedish Centre for Smart Grids and Energy Storage
Note

QC 20171019

Available from: 2017-10-16 Created: 2017-10-16 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
5. Multiagent-Based Distribution AutomationSolution for Self-Healing Grids
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multiagent-Based Distribution AutomationSolution for Self-Healing Grids
Show others...
2015 (English)In: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, Vol. 62, no 4, 2620-2628 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A multiagent-based distribution automationsolution is proposed to be used in the distribution of selfhealinggrids to solve the service restoration part of theFault Location, Isolation and Service Restoration (FLISR)task. The solution reduces the grid topology to an undirectedweighted graph and executes a distributed implementationof Prim’s minimum spanning tree algorithm tosolve the problem. The solution is compliant with state-ofthe-art standards within smart grids, including but not limitedto IEC61850. To test the performance of the algorithm,a testbed is assembled consisting of a physical dc gridmodel and several Arduino microcontrollers and RaspberryPi computers. The test results show that the proposedalgorithm can handle complex FLISR scenarios.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-165047 (URN)10.1109/TIE.2014.2387098 (DOI)000351406000058 ()2-s2.0-84924856035 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150505

Available from: 2015-04-22 Created: 2015-04-22 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
6. Method for Reliability Analysis of Distribution Grid Communications Using PRMs-Monte Carlo Methods
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Method for Reliability Analysis of Distribution Grid Communications Using PRMs-Monte Carlo Methods
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a method to perform reliability analysis of communication systems for distribution grids. The method uses probabilistic relational models to indicate the probabilistic dependencies between the components that form the communication system and it is implemented by Monte Carlo methods. This method can be used for performing reliability predictions of simulated communication systems and for evaluating the reliability of real systems. The paper contains a case study in which the proposed method is applied to evaluate the reliability of the communication systems that are required for monitoring the network components at low voltage levels using the smart metering infrastructure. This case study is taken fromthe EU FP7 DISCERN project. Finally, the results are presented in a quantitative way, showing the individual reliability of each component and the combined reliability of the entire system.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-203886 (URN)
Conference
IEEE Power and Energy Society (PES) General Meeting 2017, Chicago, IL
Funder
SweGRIDS - Swedish Centre for Smart Grids and Energy Storage
Note

QCR 20170406

Available from: 2017-03-19 Created: 2017-03-19 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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  • en-GB
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  • nn-NO
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  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
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  • asciidoc
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