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Modeling of a Retrodirective Channel With Active Antenna Arrays for Cross-Eye Jamming
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5188-602X
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cross-Eye (CE) jamming is a technique aimed at inducing false target angles in radar measurements. The potential to deceive monopulse radar, a radar type commonly used due to its angular accuracy and resilience against jamming, has captured the interest of Electronic Warfare (EW) system manufacturers. CE jamming may increase the capability of self-defense against radar guided missiles.

In this thesis, a CE jammer, based on the retrodirective channel design, for use in an EW systems is modeled and analyzed. The focus of the analysis is on the non-reciprocal Active Electronically Scanned Arrays (AESA). An electrical model of the jammer system and the AESA, including variations in the electrical properties, together with three different system correction methods are used. A simulation procedure, using single frequency (CW) signals, is defined and used for estimating total level of reciprocity, which is a primary contributor to jammer performance. Reciprocity error sensitivity for variations in model parameters is simulated to indicate which AESA aspects are essential for performance. Further, the influence of characterization and calibration noise is investigated.

The usability of the model is demonstrated in different types of simulations, which highlights the differences between the system correction methods. Simulations show that a relatively high level of reciprocity can be achieved when using system correction, if measurement noise and model limitations are disregarded. The expected degradation in reciprocity from differences in electrical properties between the reception and transmission branch of the AESA has been confirmed. The effect of characterization and calibration noise, for realistic levels of noise, seems to be a dominating factor in the total reciprocity error. A significant increase in reciprocity error can likely be expected when non-CW signals are used and when realistic levels of noise and non-linear effects are added.

Abstract [sv]

Cross-eye (CE) är en störprincip som har potential att inducera vinkelmätfel i radar. Dess möjlighet att störa monopulsradar, en vanligt förekommande typ av radar som är motståndskraftig mot många störformer, har skapat ett intresse för metoden hos tillverkare av system för elektronisk krigföring (EW-system). Användning av CE störning i ett EW-system skulle kunna öka möjligheten till självskydd vid attack från en monopulsradarstyrd robot.

Avhandlingen analyserar en modell av en retrodirektiv CE störare som är avsedd för integration i ett multifunktionellt EW-system. Fokus i analysen är på de aktiva gruppantennerna (AESA) som används i systemet. En elektrisk modell av systemet används, vilken inkluderar variationer i parametrar hos AESA samt tre olika systemkorrektionsmetoder. En simuleringsprocedur som ger möjlighet att uppskatta reciprocitetsfel och känslighet för parametervariationer i AESA är definierad. Vidare undersöks inverkan av karaktäriserings och kalibreringsbrus. Modellens användningsområden visas i olika typer av prestandasimulering där effekter av de olika systemkorrektionsmetoderna tydliggörs.

Simuleringsresultat för enkelfrekvens (CW) signaler visar en relativt hög nivå av reciprocitet om brus och olinjäriteter ignoreras. Det förväntade resultatet, att elektriska skillnader mellan mottagar- och sändargrenarna orsakar en försämring i reciprocitet, bekräftas. Inverkan av karaktäriserings och kalibreringsbrus verkar vara en dominerande faktor i det totala reciprocitetsfelet då rimliga brusnivåer används. En signifikant höjning av reciprocitetsfelet kan sannolikt förväntas då signaler med en viss bandbredd används och då rimliga nivåer av brus samt olinjäriteter inkluderas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , 37 p.
Series
TRITA-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2017:142
Keyword [en]
electronic warfare, antenna array, antenna system, radar countermeasures, jamming, cross-eye, systems modeling, system performance, systems simulation
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-217232ISBN: 978-91-7729-567-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-217232DiVA: diva2:1154500
Presentation
2017-12-05, Q2, Osquldas väg 10, Stockholm, 15:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20171102

Available from: 2017-11-02 Created: 2017-11-02 Last updated: 2017-11-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Review of Cross-Eye Jamming
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Review of Cross-Eye Jamming
2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper gives a review of cross-eye jamming using the retrodirective channel implementation. Cross-eye jamming is an electronic warfare technique in which the phase-front of a transmitted electromagnetic wave is distorted in a way similar to radar glint. A retrodirective channel is used, to avoid extreme and prohibitive tolerance requirements on the jammer system. In an implementation of the CE jammer, active electronically scanned array (AESA) antennas can be used. The reciprocity of the AESA is central to the performance of the CE jammer. Effects of the cross-eye jammer on a monopulse radar are presented. The cross-eye jammer can induce false target angles and prevent the radar from finding a stable settling angle. This paper summarizes and gives references to recently published material.

Keyword
electronic warfare, antenna array, antenna system, jamming, cross-eye
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-195620 (URN)
Conference
Antenna Measurement Techniques Association (AMTA) 37th Annual Meeting & Symposium, Long Beach - California, Oct 11–16, 2015
Note

QC 20161116

Available from: 2016-11-06 Created: 2016-11-05 Last updated: 2017-11-02Bibliographically approved
2. Error Estimation in Retrodirective Channel Implementation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Error Estimation in Retrodirective Channel Implementation
2017 (English)In: IEEE International Conference on Microwaves, Communications, Antennas and Electronic Systems (COMCAS), Tel Aviv, Israel, 13-15 november 2017, 2017, 120-125 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cross-eye (CE) jamming is a technique of electronic attack that can provide self-protection of aircraft against guided missiles using monopulse type radar. Implementation of a CE jammer using a retrodirective channel in a non-reciprocal electronic warfare system requires an appropriate system design and a correction process to achieve reciprocity. This paper defines a model of a CE jammer that uses digital radio-frequency memories, Active Electronically Scanned Arrays (AESA), and a system correction process. Further, the paper defines a simulation procedure for jammer performance estimation and system evaluation. The procedure is demonstrated by performing a parameter sensitivity study where the effects of dynamic variations in AESA model parameters on CE performance are determined.

Keyword
electronic warfare, jamming, radar countermeasures, systems modeling, system performance, systems simulation
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-217161 (URN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Microwaves, Communications, Antennas and Electronic Systems (COMCAS) 2017
Note

QC 20171102 

Available from: 2017-11-02 Created: 2017-11-02 Last updated: 2017-11-02Bibliographically approved
3. Modeling of Retrodirective Channel for Cross-Eye Jamming
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling of Retrodirective Channel for Cross-Eye Jamming
2017 (English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Electronic Warfare systems can provide increased self-protection against radar guided missiles by using Cross-Eye (CE) jamming. This paper models a retrodirective CE jammer with active antenna arrays and three different system correction methods for removing the non-reciprocity of the antennas. A defined simulation procedure is used for analyzing the effects of parameter-variations and noise on the level of reciprocity. Simulations show a fairly high degree of reciprocity.

Keyword
electronic warfare, antenna array, antenna system, jamming, cross-eye
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-217119 (URN)
Note

Submitted for publication

QC 20171102 

Available from: 2017-11-01 Created: 2017-11-01 Last updated: 2017-11-02Bibliographically approved

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