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On inflammation and cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
1996 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have a shorter life span than the general population. An increased death due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been reported. RA is characterized by synovitis and joint destruction accompanied by an acute phase reaction and systemic features. The present work investigates the epidemiology of CVD in patients with RA in the county of Västerbotten and the influence of inflammation on lipid metabolism and haemostasis.

In a retrospective cohort study on 606 RA patients, the overall mortality was significantly higher than in the general population, with an excess death rate for CVD and for ishemic heart diseae (IHD) in both sexes. Multiple Cox regression, showed that male sex, higher age at disease onset and cardiovascular event increased the risk for death. Male sex, high age at disease onset and hypertension increased the risk for cardiovascular event. Diabetes mellitus, treatment with corticosteroids, disease modifying antirheumatic drugs and postmenopausal estrogen neither influenced survival nor the risk of cardiovascular event.

In 93 patients with active RA, the levels of cholesterol, high density- (HDL) and low density (LDL) lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly lower, and Lipoprotein(a) was significantly higher compared to controls. In a follow-up on 53 patients, a relation between the change of Lp(a) and acute phase proteins was found only in patients with high levels of Lp(a). Preheparin lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and mass were significantly decreased in 17 postmenopausal women with active RA. Preheparin LPL mass correlated inversely to several acute phase proteins and interleukin-6. Low levels of LPL mass may implicate increased hepatic clearence but also increased macrophage ingestion of lipoproteins via the LDL receptor-related protein (LRP).

Haemostasis of the circulation was investigated in 74 of the 93 patients with active RA. In patients with extraarticular disease, the release of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was significantly decreased, and its inhibitor (PAI-1) was significantly increased compared to patients with nonsystemic disease, implicating hypofibrinolysis. In a two year follow-up, patients with thromboembolic events had significantly elevated levels of von Willebrand factor, PAI-1, triglycerides and haptoglobin compared to event-free patients.

In 29 RA patients and 18 spondylarthropathy patients with gonarthritis, radiological joint destruction correlated to PAI-1 antigen in synovial fluid and, inversely, to plasminogen. A relationship between activation of fibrin degrading proteolytic enzymes and joint destruction was implicated.

In conclusion, several processes involved in lipid metabolism and haemostasis are influenced in active RA. In view of the increased death rate due to CVD, an efficient control of inflammation should be important, not only for reducing joint destruction, but also for reducing systemical atherogenic and thrombogenic effects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 1996. , 57 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 465
Keyword [en]
Rheumatoid arthritis, mortality, cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, inflammation, lipids, Lp(a), haemostasis, fibrinolysis, atherogenesis, thrombogenesis
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141304ISBN: 91-7191-154-5 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-141304DiVA: diva2:1153150
Projects
digitalisering@umu.se
Note

s. 1-54: sammanfattning, s. 55-133: 6 uppsatser

Available from: 2017-10-27 Created: 2017-10-27 Last updated: 2017-10-27Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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