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Effects of abiotic and biotic factors on hatching, emergence and survival in Baltic salmon (Salmo salar L.)
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Studies in Biology and Environmental Sciences.
1988 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis deals with important factors that affect the temporal organization of emergence and early survival of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The study population was obtained from the Norrfors hatchery (63°50'N,20°05'E), Umeälven (Ume river) in Northern Sweden. The main objectives of the thesis has been to study; a: the effect of female and egg characteristics on embryonic survival, b: the effect of egg size, temperature and photoperiod on the emergence pattern and c: the impact of early or late emergence on survival in relation to predation and limited territorial space.

The main results are summarized as follows: (1) Fecundity and egg size increased with increasing weight of females. No effect of female size were found on egg colour. Longer impoundment and later stripping increase egg colour. Egg mortality was not correlated with egg colour. Stripping date was found to have the strongest effect on mortality. (2) Egg size had no effect on the timing of emergence but fry of different egg size emerged synchronously. Fry from large eggs left the gravel as heavier fry and with a larger proportion of yolk left compared to fry from small eggs. (3) The number of days and number of degree days from hatching to 50% emergence decreased exponentially with increasing temperature. Synchronization of emergence increased with increasing temperature. Fry emerged with more yolk at 12 °C compared to 6 °C. (4) Eggs kept in a LD 16:8 light regime hatched mainly during the light period, while eggs kept in constant darkness hatched continously over a 24 hour period. Alevins kept at different light regimes (light>4h) from hatching until emergence left the gravel during the dark period. Daylength had no effect on the annual onset of emergence. (5) In a laboratory stream channel, predator presence at emergence increased mortality especially in early emerging fry. If the predator was introduced after completed emergence high mortality was noted among late emerging fry. The presence of fish predators and a limited territorial space for fry seemed to make early and late emergence hazardous and to favour a "peak" emergence. In the presence of a predator the fry changed their behaviour by reducing their swimming activity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 1988. , p. 17
Keyword [en]
Baltic salmon, salmo salar, eggs, egg colour, alevins, fry, photoperiod, temperature, hatching, emergence pattern, synchronization, survival
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141051ISBN: 91-7174-321-9 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-141051DiVA, id: diva2:1151494
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digitalisering@umu.se
Available from: 2017-10-23 Created: 2017-10-23 Last updated: 2017-11-07Bibliographically approved

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