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Passive in-vehicle driver breath alcohol detection using advanced sensor signal acquisition and fusion
Hök instrument AB.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3286-2572
Hök Instrument AB.
Uppsala Universitet.
Autoliv Development AB.
2017 (English)In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 18:sup1, p. 31-36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: The research objective of the present investigation is to demonstrate the present status of passive in-vehicle driver breath alcohol detection and highlight the necessary conditions for large-scale implementation of such a system. Completely passive detection has remained a challenge mainly because of the requirements on signal resolution combined with the constraints of vehicle integration. The work is part of the Driver Alcohol Detection System for Safety (DADSS) program aiming at massive deployment of alcohol sensing systems that could potentially save thousands of American lives annually.

Method: The work reported here builds on earlier investigations, in which it has been shown that detection of alcohol vapor in the proximity of a human subject may be traced to that subject by means of simultaneous recording of carbon dioxide (CO2) at the same location. Sensors based on infrared spectroscopy were developed to detect and quantify low concentrations of alcohol and CO2. In the present investigation, alcohol and CO2 were recorded at various locations in a vehicle cabin while human subjects were performing normal in-step procedures and driving preparations. A video camera directed to the driver position was recording images of the driver's upper body parts, including the face, and the images were analyzed with respect to features of significance to the breathing behavior and breath detection, such as mouth opening and head direction.

Results: Improvement of the sensor system with respect to signal resolution including algorithm and software development, and fusion of the sensor and camera signals was successfully implemented and tested before starting the human study. In addition, experimental tests and simulations were performed with the purpose of connecting human subject data with repeatable experimental conditions. The results include occurrence statistics of detected breaths by signal peaks of CO2 and alcohol. From the statistical data, the accuracy of breath alcohol estimation and timing related to initial driver routines (door opening, taking a seat, door closure, buckling up, etc.) can be estimated.The investigation confirmed the feasibility of passive driver breath alcohol detection using our present system. Trade-offs between timing and sensor signal resolution requirements will become critical. Further improvement of sensor resolution and system ruggedness is required before the results can be industrialized.

Conclusions: It is concluded that a further important step toward completely passive detection of driver breath alcohol has been taken. If required, the sniffer function with alcohol detection capability can be combined with a subsequent highly accurate breath test to confirm the driver's legal status using the same sensor device. The study is relevant to crash avoidance, in particular driver monitoring systems and driver-vehicle interface design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 18:sup1, p. 31-36
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-36633DOI: 10.1080/15389588.2017.1312688PubMedID: 28368660OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-36633DiVA, id: diva2:1147102
Available from: 2017-10-04 Created: 2017-10-04 Last updated: 2018-10-16Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. High performance breath alcohol analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High performance breath alcohol analysis
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Alcohol breath testing on a larger scale will save lives. Alcohol intake affects the human body by significantly longer response time to external stimuli. In demanding situations where the senses need to be on alert a prolonged reaction time can be the difference between life and death, both for the intoxicated subject and for surrounding  individuals.

The aims of this thesis include investigations of a new type of breath alcohol sensor, designed for operation without a mouthpiece, both with regards to sensor performance as well as usability in relation to various breath  alcohol  screening applications.

In many situations where breath alcohol screening is suitable, there is a need for quick and easy use. The instrument should interfere as little as possible with the regular routines and procedures. One such task is driving. To accommodate for these needs in an in-vehicle application, the breath alcohol sensing system must be seamlessly installed in the vehicle and not interfere with the normal behavior of the sober driver. Driving is also a task requiring high level of concentration over a prolonged period of time. In the U.S. alone thousands of lives are annually lost in accidents where the driver was under the influence of  alcohol.  Similar numbers have been recorded for Europe. The potential for a system handling the needs for ease-of-use is huge and may result in successful products.

The results presented within this thesis provide experimental evidence of sufficient sensor performance for screening applications with an instrument operating without a mouthpiece. Smarter calculation methods were also shown to be a feasible path to improved measurement reliability. Important steps towards an even more passive solution for in-vehicle screening is also presented. Experiments showed that given enough time and sensor resolution, passive alcohol detection systems are feasible.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Malardalen University Press, 2017
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 240
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-36634 (URN)978-91-7485-350-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-11-15, Delta, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-10-04 Created: 2017-10-04 Last updated: 2017-10-12Bibliographically approved

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