Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Effectiveness of mass drug administration for reducing seasonal malaria transmission towards its elimination in hotspot areas in Zanzibar
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
2017 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Background: Following the increase of international funding for implementation of the combined effective malaria control strategies for prevention, diagnosis and treatment in the past decades, a significant reduction with 30% of malaria attributed morbidity and mortality has been achieved. At present, declining transmission intensities, in areas of successful malaria control, have resulted in a relative increase of asymptomatic low parasite density infections that fall below the detection level of rapid diagnostic tests and microscopy.

Mass drug administration (MDA) is a treatment of the entire population in a geographic area with antimalarial drugs irrespective of the presence of symptoms and without diagnostic testing, with the purpose of targeting asymptomatic malarial infections.

 

Aim: The overall purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of two rounds of MDA for reducing malaria transmission on Unguja island in Zanzibar.

 

Methods: A cluster-randomised controlled study with two arms was performed: an arm with two rounds of MDA, and a control arm without MDA. A total of 7941 field samples from the first MDA round and 9853 samples four months after the second round of MDA were screened. Two different sets of qPCRs, 18Sq-PCR and cytb-qPCR were used to detect the positivity of Plasmodium infection. The species were further identified using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).

 

Results: Cytb-qPCR detected more positive samples compared to 18S-qPCR. The qPCR determined malaria prevalence six months after the second MDA round was 1.7%. P. falciparum was the predominant species accounting for 64.6% and 63.3% from first MDA round and four month after second round of MDA respectively. From the first MDA round, the prevalence of P. malariae and P. vivax was 15.4% with 0.6% respectively. The parasite prevalence in the second round of MDA was: 10.8 % in P. malariae, 7.2 % in P. ovale and 0.6 % in P. vivax.

 

Conclusion: There is still a presence of asymptomatic low-density parasite carriers and the parasite prevalence remains relatively low in Zanzibar. MDA can be effective in low endemic settings when the goal is elimination.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-326636OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-326636DiVA: diva2:1127623
Educational program
Master Programme in Infection Biology
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2017-11-02 Created: 2017-07-17 Last updated: 2017-11-02Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(1040 kB)9 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 1040 kBChecksum SHA-512
ddba15498a48f8513eec578aae8745b81bb54023f2929df180abb25c00ba750067ccf6e10d2cce3e8ec2fac2c8f617b3465d97a3992ebfb28061a72182257ed5
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

By organisation
Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology
Medical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 9 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

urn-nbn

Altmetric score

urn-nbn
Total: 18 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf