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The trans-continental distributions of pentachlorophenol and pentachloroanisole in pine needles indicate separate origins
Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Research Unit: Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5972-1852
Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6471-143X
Stockholm University, Sweden.
Environment and Climate Change Canada, Canada.
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2017 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 229, 688-695 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The production and use of pentachlorophenol (PCP) was recently prohibited/restricted by the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs), but environmental data are few and of varying quality. We here present the first extensive dataset of the continent-wide (Eurasia and Canada) occurrence of PCP and its methylation product pentachloroanisole (PCA) in the environment, specifically in pine needles. The highest concentrations of PCP were found close to expected point sources, while PCA chiefly shows a northern and/or coastal distribution not correlating with PCP distribution. Although long-range transport and environmental methylation of PCP or formation from other precursors cannot be excluded, the distribution patterns suggest that such processes may not be the only source of PCA to remote regions and unknown sources should be sought. We suggest that natural sources, e.g., chlorination of organic matter in Boreal forest soils enhanced by chloride deposition from marine sources, should be investigated as a possible partial explanation of the observed distributions. The results show that neither PCA nor total PCP (ΣPCP = PCP + PCA) should be used to approximate the concentrations of PCP; PCP and PCA must be determined and quantified separately to understand their occurrence and fate in the environment. The background work shows that the accumulation of airborne POPs in plants is a complex process. The variations in life cycles and physiological adaptations have to be taken into account when using plants to evaluate the concentrations of POPs in remote areas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 229, 688-695 p.
Keyword [en]
Stockholm Convention; persistent organic pollutants; long-range transport; natural chlorinated compounds; environmental processes
National Category
Environmental Sciences Geosciences, Multidisciplinary Other Chemistry Topics Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139368DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.07.010ISI: 000410010200072PubMedID: 28711567OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-139368DiVA: diva2:1127301
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish National Bank Tercentenary Fund; Swedish Environmental Protection Agency; Environment Canada; South African National Research Foundation

Available from: 2017-07-13 Created: 2017-07-13 Last updated: 2017-09-22

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