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Earnings Management: En kvantitativ studie om faktorer som påverkar förekomsten av resultatmanipulering i svenska börsnoterade bolag
University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
2017 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Earnings Management : A quantitative study of factors that affect the presence of profit manipulation in Swedish listed companies (English)
Abstract [sv]

Earnings Management är ett begrepp som syftar till diskretionär redovisning som innebär manipulering av ett företags resultat. Resultatmanipulering kan ske både uppåt och nedåt. När manipulering sker uppåt syftar det till att höja det redovisade resultatet medan manipulering nedåt syftar till att sänka resultatet vilket benämns Big Bath Accounting. Det finns flera forskare som har studerat detta område över tid och som har kommit fram till motstridiga resultat. Vissa forskare menar att Earnings Management och Big Bath Accounting förekommer i stor utsträckning då företag erbjuder bonusprogram som baseras på företagets resultat samt om VD-byte har skett. Andra forskare är av en annan uppfattning. De finner inga statistiska bevis för att Earnings Management och Big Bath Accounting förekommer vid bonusprogram och VD-byten. Vissa av dessa forskare menar även att Earnings Management har avtagit avsevärt eller till och med försvunnit under de senaste åren. Tidigare forskning visar även motstridiga bevis kring användningen av Earnings Management under finanskriser samt bonusprogram. Studiens syfte var således att undersöka faktorer som ligger till grund för Earnings Management och Big Bath Accounting samt incitament som kan påverka ledningen till resultatmanipulering.

Resultat från tidigare forskning ligger till grund för studiens teoretiska referensram som mynnade ut i tre hypoteser. Dessa hypoteser testades via multipel regressionsanalys samt en tidsserieanalys. Studiens urval omfattade företag på den svenska marknaden på OMX Stockholmsbörsen Large Cap under åren 2007-2015. Det ursprungliga urvalet omfattades av 747 observationer men då ett visst bortfall ägde rum kvarstod 547 observationer för hypotesprövning ett och två samt 567 observationer för hypotesprövning 3.

Resultatet visade på ett statistiskt samband mellan resultatmanipulering och bonusprogram, dock fann vi inget säkerställt samband mellan resultatsänkande periodiseringar och VD-byten. Däremot fann vi stöd för vår tredje alternativhypotes att finanskrisen påverkade Earnings Management under åren 2008-2009. Vår slutsats blev således att de faktorer som ligger till grund för Earnings Management och Big Bath Accounting samt incitament som kan påverka ledningen till resultatmanipulering är bonusprogram och finanskrisen.

Abstract [en]

Earnings Management is a term aimed at discretionary accounting which involves manipulation of a company's results. Earnings Management can be done either upwards or downwards. When manipulation occurs downwards with the aim of lowering the result, it´s called Big Bath Accounting. There are several researchers who have studied this area over time and have come up with conflicting results. Some researchers believe that Earnings Management and Big Bath Accounting occur to a large extent when companies offer bonus programs based on company performance and whether CEO turnovers has occurred. Other researchers have a different opinion. They do not find any statistical evidence that Earnings Management and Big Bath Accounting occurs when the CEO has changed and companies have bonus programs. Some of these researchers also believe that Earnings Management has diminished significantly or even disappeared in recent years. Previous research also shows conflicting evidence about the use of Earnings Management during financial crises and bonus programs. The purpose of the study was thus to investigate factors that underlie Earnings Management and Big Bath Accounting as well as incentives that may affect the management of a company to apply the theory.

Results from previous research form the basis of the theoretical framework of the study, which emerged in three hypotheses. These hypotheses were tested by multiple regression analysis as well as a time series analysis. The study's selection was limited to companies in the Swedish market on the OMX Stockholm Stock Exchange's Large Cap in 20072015. The original sample was comprised of 747 observations, but when a certain loss occurred, 547 observations remained while testing hypothesis one and two and 567 observations remained while testing hypothesis three.

The result showed a statistical correlation between performance manipulation and bonus programs, but we found no statistical correlation between profit-decreasing accruals and CEO turnover. On the other hand, we found support for our third alternative hypothesis that the financial crisis affected Earnings Management during 2008-2009. Our conclusion thus became that the factors underlying Earnings Management and Big Bath Accounting as well as incentives that could affect the management of a company to apply the theory are bonus programs and the financial crisis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. , 32 p.
Keyword [en]
Big Bath Accounting, Earnings Management, Management Turnover, CEO Turnover, Performance Measurement, Goodwill Impairment, Financial Crisis
Keyword [sv]
Big Bath Accounting, resultatmanipulering, ledningsbyte, VD-byte, prestationsmått, goodwillnedskrivning, finanskrisen
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-11162Local ID: EXC504OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-11162DiVA: diva2:1120847
Subject / course
Business administration
Educational program
Ekonomprogrammet
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2017-07-07 Created: 2017-07-07 Last updated: 2017-07-13Bibliographically approved

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