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Assessment of the Electricity Generation Mix in Ghana: the Potential of Renewable Energy
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
2017 (English)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Analys av Ghanas elproduktion : potentialen för förnybar energi (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

Electricity is a fundamental part a functioning society. Ghana’s electricity system is strained by an ever-growing climate instability and increase of population. Therefore, it is crucial for the country's development that it's electricity supply is done in a sustainable way.

This report aims to analyze Ghana’s ability to reach SDG 7.1 and the Marrakech Vision, an outcome from the COP 22 meeting in Morocco. This was done by creating a model over Ghana’s electricity system and how it develops over time, called BAU, using the analytical tools: OSeMOSYS and OnSSET. A practical implementation of BAU was then discussed. After that, three development scenarios with different renewable energy targets for the electricity system, were implemented in the model. The results show that CSP and natural gas power plants were the most prominent electricity producers. The growing share of renewable energy in the target scenarios was mostly due to wind power, replacing the natural gas power plants.

Ghana has local natural gas resources as well as high solar potential. The rising share of renewable energy limits the fossil fuel emission. At the same time, this increased share also endangers the reliability of the electricity supply, as the capacity of renewable energy resources fluctuate and could lead to high investment costs. BAU can be a possible solution which minimizes the fossil fuel consumption and limits the CO2 emissions, but at the risk of possibly having an unreliable electricity supply. To be able to meet SDG 7.1, increasing the share of renewable energy in electricity generation can be a solution, but at the same time, not all requirements of the goal will be fulfilled.

Abstract [sv]

Elektricitet är en grundläggande del av ett välfungerande samhälle. Ghanas elsystem påfrestas allt mer av skiftande klimat och växande befolkning. Därför är det oumbärligt för landets utveckling att elförsörjningen sker på ett hållbart sätt.

Denna rapport syftar till att undersöka Ghanas förmåga att uppnå SDG 7.1 och Marrakech-visionen, vilken landet förband sig till under COP 22 mötet i Marocko. Detta genomfördes genom att utveckla en modell över Ghanas elsystem och dess utveckling, kallad BAU, med de digitala verktygen: OSeMOSYS och OnSSET. Därefter diskuterades dess genomförbarhet. Fortsatt undersöktes tre utvecklingsscenarier med olika mål för andel förnybar energi i elproduktionen, i modellen. Resultatet visar på att CSP och gaskraftverk var de mest framträdande elproducenterna. En stigande andel förnybar energi utspelade sig som en ökad elproduktion från vindkraftverk och minskad från gaskraftverk.

Ghana besitter naturgastillgångar och hög solpotential. Den stigande andelen förnybar energi begränsar koldioxidutsläppen. Samtidigt kan den ökande andelen förnybar energi sätta pålitligheten i fråga då tillgången till sådan energi fluktuerar, och innebära höga investeringskostnader. Således kan BAU vara genomförbar sett till begränsning av koldioxidutsläpp, men kan eventuellt inte tillhandahålla tillförlitlig eller tillräcklig elektricitet. Att öka andelen förnybara energi i elproduktionen kan förbättra chanserna att nå SDG 7.1 men inte uppfylla målet helt.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. , p. 49
Series
TRITA-IM-KAND 2017:20
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-210686OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-210686DiVA, id: diva2:1119247
External cooperation
SADA
Available from: 2017-07-03 Created: 2017-07-03 Last updated: 2017-07-03Bibliographically approved

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