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Residential wood combustion, cancer risk frequency and costs in Sweden: A review of instruments using the MCA methodology
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
2017 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Småskalig vedeldning, cancerriskfrekvenser och kostnader i Sverige : En undersökning av styrmedel med MCA metodik (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

Air pollution cause approximately 5000 premature deaths in Sweden each year. Residential wood combustion of solid biomass (RWC) is responsible for at least 1000 based on a relative risk coefficient of 17 % per 10 μg/m3 exposure. The carcinogenic properties of RWC emissions is linked to their content of particulates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH’s). The ambition of this study is to answer whether cancer risk may be used as indicator for out dated heating technology with high emissions of carcinogenic air pollutants, and which socioeconomic costs that can be linked to such a scenario. The efficacy of different instruments that are discussed in Swedish environmental policy is also discussed. A transdisciplinary approach, constituting of a literature review, statistical analysis, gap analysis and multi criteria analysis was applied as study design. A literature review resulted in a mapping of the state of the art concerning RWC particulates and their impact on cancer in Sweden together with its related socioeconomic costs. The study is focused on PM2,5 and B(a)P emissions. A statistical analysis examined the potential relationship between short-lived micro nuclei (MN) in Swedish 12-year old school children, and their exposure to the carcinogenic PAH Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) from RWC in Sweden. The results suggest that higher rates of lung cancer incidence, and socioeconomic costs may be found in areas burdened with high rates of RWC emissions from outdated heating technology. The MCA suggest that a combination of instruments is most suitable to achieve the targeted specification for B(a)P in the Clean Air objective, as found in previous CBA’s, and that other instrument may lack efficacy.

Abstract [sv]

Varje år orsakar luftföroreningar omkring 5000 prematura dödsfall i Sverige. Småskalig vedeldning (RWC) ansvarar för åtminstone 1000 av dessa, baserat på den relativa risk-koefficienten 17 % per 10 μg/m3 exponering. De cancerogena egenskaperna hos vedeldningsutsläpp beror bland annat på dess partiklar som bland annat innehåller polycykliska aromatiska kolväten (PAH:er). Ambitionen med denna studie är att besvara hur framtida cancerrisk kan användas som indikator för luftföroreningar från omodern uppvärmningsteknik och vilka samhällsekonomiska följder som kan länkas till en sådan. Dessutom undersöktes styrkraften hos de styrmedel som diskuteras i svensk miljöpolicy. Med hjälp av ett tvärvetenskapligt tillvägagångssätt, bestående av litteraturgenomgång, statistisk analys, gapanalys och multikriterieanalys besvarades frågorna. Litteraturgenomgången resulterade i en kartläggning av det nuvarande kunskapsläget om vedpartiklars påverkan på cancer i Sverige och dess relaterade samhällskostnader. Studien är fokuserad på PM2,5 och B(a)P emissioner. En statistisk analys undersökte korrelationen mellan en biomarkor för framtida cancerrisk, kortlivade mikrokärnor (MN), hos svenska 12-åriga skolelever, och deras vedröksexponering. Resultaten indikerar svagt att större risk för lungcancer kan spås i områden med relativt högre exponering för vedrökskomponenten B(a)P, alltså områden med omodern uppvärmningsutrustning. Multikriterieanalysen visar, liksom i tidigare kostnad-effektivitetsanalyser, att en kombination av olika styrmedel har störst potential att uppnå specifikationerna för PM2,5 och B(a)P i det svenska miljökvalitetsmålet Ren luft. Andra styrmedel kan sakna styrkraft.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. , p. 60
Series
TRITA-IM-EX 2017:09
Keyword [en]
Air pollution, Socioeconomic costs, PM2.5, B(a)P, MCA, Environmental management, Environmental policy, Residential wood combustion
Keyword [sv]
Luftföroreningar, Samhällsekonomiska kostnader, PM2.5, B(a)P, MCA, Miljömanagement, Miljöpolicy, Vedeldning
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-209771OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-209771DiVA, id: diva2:1114280
External cooperation
Naturvårdsverket
Available from: 2017-06-22 Created: 2017-06-22 Last updated: 2017-06-22Bibliographically approved

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