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Indigeneidad, descolonización y la paradoja del desarrollismo extractivista en el Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia: Indigeneity, decolonization and the paradox of extractive development in the Plurinational State of Bolivia
Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2581-2588
2017 (Spanish)In: Revista Chilena de Derecho y Ciencia Política, ISSN 0718-9389, Vol. 8, no 1, 47-81 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Historically, indigenous peoples have been marginalized and oppressed in the Bolivian political economy. During the presidency of Evo Morales, and under the 2009 Constitution, political, economic, social and cultural decolonization has become the central project for the transformation of the State and society. On the one hand, the new Constitution has been classified as one of the most progressive in the world with respect to ethnically defined rights; the indigenous ethical-philosophical principles of Suma Qamaña/Vivir Bien, referring to the harmonious relationship between individuals and nature, have been incorporated into the Constitution. On the other hand, these rights collide with broader social rights (defined by class) and also the rights of the State to extract and market natural resources (especially hydrocarbon extraction and mining) under the banner of redistributive justice, social reforms and the common good. This collision is defined in this study as the paradox of extractivist developmentalism. The article is based on an ethnographic work and problematizes the extractivist dilemma and the tensions between ethnic rights and class rights, thus contributing to debates about indigeneity and the challenges and dilemmas of decolonizing projects.

Abstract [es]

Históricamente, los pueblos indígenas fueron marginados y oprimidos en la economía política boliviana. En tiempos de Evo Morales en la presidencia y con la Constitución de 2009, la descolonización política, económica, social y cultural ha llegado a ser el proyecto central de la transformación del Estado y la sociedad. Por un lado, la nueva Constitución ha sido clasificada como una de las más progresistas del mundo en relación con los derechos étnicamente definidos. Los principios indígenas ético-filosóficos del Suma Qamaña/Vivir Bien, acerca de la relación armónica entre individuos y naturaleza fueron incorporados en la Constitución. Por otro lado, estos derechos colisionan con los derechos sociales más amplios (definidos por clase), e igualmente, con los derechos del Estado de extraer y comercializar los recursos naturales (en especial hidrocarburos y minería) bajo la bandera de la justicia redistributiva, reformas sociales y bien común, que en este estudio se define como la paradoja del desarrollismo extractivista. Este artículo se basa en un trabajo etnográfico y se problematiza el dilema extractivista y las tensiones entre derechos étnicos y derechos de clase. De esta manera, se aporta a los debates sobre la indigeneidad y la los desafíos y dilemas de proyectos descolonizadores.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Chile, 2017. Vol. 8, no 1, 47-81 p.
Keyword [en]
Bolivia, constitutionalism, ethnic rights, socio-economic rights, decolonization, political economy, extractivism, indigeneity, living well.
Keyword [es]
Bolivia, constitucionalismo, derechos étnicos, derechos socio-económicos, descolonización, economía política, extractivismo, indigeneidad, suma qamaña, vivir bien.
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-32838OAI: oai:DiVA.org:sh-32838DiVA: diva2:1110383
Projects
Rights of Nature - Nature of Rights. Neo-Constitutionalism and Ethno-Ecologist Resistance in Bolivia and Ecuador
Funder
Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, 2012-1828
Available from: 2017-06-15 Created: 2017-06-15 Last updated: 2017-07-03Bibliographically approved

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