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Integrating Computational and Participatory Simulations for Design in Complex Systems
KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3416-4535
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The understanding and conceptualization of cities and its constituent systems such as transportation and healthcare as open and complex is shifting the debates around the technical and communicative rationales of planning. Viewing cities in a holistic manner presents methodological challenges, where our understanding of complexity is applied in a tangible fashion to planning processes. Bridging the two rationales in the tools and methodologies of planning is necessary for the emergence of a 'non-linear rationality' of planning, one that accounts for and is premised upon complexity. Simulations representing complex systems provide evidence and support for planning, and have the potential to serve as an interface between the more abstract and political decision making and the material city systems.

Moving beyond current planning methods, this thesis explores the role of simulations in planning. Recognizing the need for holistic representations, the thesis integrates multiple disparate simulations into a holistic whole achieving complex representations of systems. These representations are then applied and studied in an interactive environment to address planning problems in different contexts. The thesis contributes an approach towards the development of complex representations of systems; improvements on participatory methods to integrate computational simulations; a nuanced understanding of the relative value of simulation constructs; technologies and frameworks that facilitate the easy development of integrated simulations that can support participatory planning processes.

The thesis develops contributions through experiments which involved problems and stakeholders from real world systems. The approach towards development of integrated simulations is realized in an open source framework. The framework creates computationally efficient, scalable and interactive simulations of complex systems, which used in a participatory manner delivers tangible plans and designs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , 43 p.
Series
TRITA-STH : report, ISSN 1653-3836 ; 2017:9
Keyword [en]
distributed simulations, interactive, participatory, gaming, complexity theory, fidelity
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Technology and Health
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-208170ISBN: 978-91-7729-466-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-208170DiVA: diva2:1104602
Public defence
2017-08-25, Lecture Hall T1, Hälsovägen 11C, Huddinge, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 609042
Note

QC 20170602

Available from: 2017-06-02 Created: 2017-06-01 Last updated: 2017-08-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Complexity and Context: Meta-requirements for Simulation Games
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Complexity and Context: Meta-requirements for Simulation Games
(English)In: Simulation and Gaming, ISSN 10468781Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Background. Simulations and models mediate between actors, and between actors and reality. Researching their context of use in policy making and their interpretation by policy makers is essential, since it might lead to different requirements and considerations for a modeler and the modeling process. 

 

Aim. In this article, we investigate and attempt to define the demands and requirements policy makers might have from simulation models, especially in the context of decision making in complex systems. Another goal of this article is to contribute to the ongoing discussion on fidelity and validity, and their relationship with representation of systems in models.

 

Method. Policy makers have expert knowledge of the systems they work with, as well as considerable experience in working with analytical tools such as simulations that provide them with evidence to support their policy processes. As potential clients and users of simulations, the reflections of 18 policy makers on the use of simulations are triggered through structured, play based exploration of a systems dynamics model. The system dynamics model simulates is specific to the local context and simulates the region they work in. It is implemented within Democracy 3, a commercially available game. This model is explored through game play in a workshop. Through forms and debriefing, insights were gathered from the players’ reflections on the use of models and simulations in policy practice.

 

Results. Our results point to different requirements from policy makers on simulations and models. Policy makers prefer complete, open models which are flexible and facilitate exploration. Results also demonstrate the linked nature of fidelity and validity. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications
Keyword
Representation, simulation, model, fidelity, validity, open, complete, agency
National Category
Computer Systems Public Administration Studies
Research subject
Human-computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-208163 (URN)
Projects
COMPLEX
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 308601
Note

QC 20170602

Available from: 2017-06-01 Created: 2017-06-01 Last updated: 2017-06-02Bibliographically approved
2. Gaming, urban planning and transportation design process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gaming, urban planning and transportation design process
2015 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography, 2015, Vol. 213, 297-312 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In today’s urban planning, two perspectives dominate the discourse: a technical-rational perspective and a communicative rational perspective. Bridging the dichotomy between the two perspectives and situating new planning support methods within the context of complexity theories leads to new structures for planning support systems. The implications of the inherent complex nature of planning when bridging these perspectives should be taken into account for new planning processes and support systems. The development of such methods requires an iterative cycle between methodological and technological aspects of tool development. The chapter presents a technical framework that enables the development of methods integrating both perspectives. The framework derives its requirements from the integration of the two perspectives, and is evaluated in the context of two design case studies in the cities of Stockholm and Paris. The development of the framework and method has implications for the design of tools in urban planning. The tools need to reflect the open nature of the complex systems they represent and operate in. Such methods also expand the boundaries of the design space, allowing for previously unknown configurations.

Series
Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography, ISSN 1863-2351
Keyword
Design, Iterative methods, Urban planning, Complexity theory, Design case studies, Iterative cycles, Planning process, Planning support systems, Technical frameworks, Technological aspects, Tool development, Urban transportation
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-177245 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-18368-8_16 (DOI)000380473900016 ()2-s2.0-84937413185 (Scopus ID)9783319183671 (ISBN)
Conference
Computers in Urban Planning and Urban Management Conference, CUPUM 2015, 7 July 2015 through 10 July 2015
Note

QC 20151119

Available from: 2015-11-19 Created: 2015-11-17 Last updated: 2017-06-01Bibliographically approved
3. Distributed, integrated and interactive traffic simulations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributed, integrated and interactive traffic simulations
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2015 Winter Simulation Conference / [ed] L. Yilmaz, W. K. V. Chan, I. Moon, T. M. K. Roeder, C. Macal, and M. D. Rossetti, IEEE , 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Mainstream discourse in urban planning is in transition, due to shifts from a technical to a communicativeperspective, and increased scrutiny and criticism of models and simulations. The cognizance of complexityin urban systems is imposing limitations on modeling. The added benefits of today’s data and compu-tational power make simulations harder to validate and understand. Reconciling the movements towardsa communicative and exploratory approach as compared to a technical and predictive approach requiresnew methods for planning process and posits new requirements and functions for simulations. Based ondistributed simulation and gaming simulation, the paper presents a framework to support the exploration ofsimulated and realistic virtual worlds in a participatory fashion, enabling new approaches to urban planning.The development and evaluation of the framework casts simulations in a new perspective and explores thecontext of use of simulations in planning and design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2015
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-181769 (URN)10.1109/WSC.2015.7408288 (DOI)2-s2.0-84962787316 (Scopus ID)978-146739743-8 (ISBN)
Conference
2015 Winter Simulation Conference
Note

QC 20160302

Available from: 2016-02-02 Created: 2016-02-02 Last updated: 2017-06-01Bibliographically approved
4. Evaluating City Operations Design using Interactive Simulations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating City Operations Design using Interactive Simulations
(English)In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826XArticle in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Background. Games and simulations are evaluated for serving different functions, such as learning, design, communication and collaboration. Research on the relationship between the constructs of games and their outcomes can provide insights on the design of future games, to steer towards particular outcomes.

 

Aim. The article aims to relate the constructs of two high fidelity, high tech and free form games to a conceptual evaluation framework, to better understand the relationships between constructs such as fidelity, validity and the functions a game is meant to serve.

 

Method. The games are built for designing operational procedures for city management. The games are built using the ProtoWorld framework, and simulate the cities of Rome and Haifa through the integration of simulations. The framework enables run time interaction and intervention within the simulated city, such that players can manage and design procedures for their cities through a large scale, realistic simulation system. Controllers from both cities play the games for their respective cities, and attempt to design and manage their simulated cities. As experts on the system, their reflections on the use of such tools in their planning practice and the outcomes of the game sessions are analyzed to evaluate the games and game sessions.

 

Results. Results point to the free form nature of the game enabling the design of tangible outcomes, which can be immediately validated and implemented in practice. The high fidelity nature of the simulation restricts facilitation, but enhances the players’ ability to comprehend complexity. The agency of the players enables their identification with the simulation, but restricts their creativity in the game. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications
Keyword
Representation, simulation, free form, high tech, debriefing, facilitation, agency
National Category
Computer Systems Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Human-computer Interaction; Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-208165 (URN)
Projects
PETRA
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 609042
Note

QC 20170602

Available from: 2017-06-01 Created: 2017-06-01 Last updated: 2017-06-02Bibliographically approved
5. Hybrid, composable approach to simulations in healthcare operations and management
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hybrid, composable approach to simulations in healthcare operations and management
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2017 Winter Simulation Conference / [ed] W. K. V. Chan, A. D'Ambrogio, G. Zacharewicz, N. Mustafee, G. Wainer, and E. Page, ACM Digital Library, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Simulation has been used for modeling in healthcare for many decades. Ranging from the modeling of physiological processes to group dynamics to the modeling of strategic and system-wide models of healthcare provision, simulation promises to be an effective approach to analyze healthcare operations. Effective application of simulations in healthcare operations requires that simulation deal with wide variability and unpredictability in workflow processes, the complexity of healthcare organizations and enables the participation of human experts in the modeling and operations processes. In this paper, based on requirements drawn from a participatory simulation with healthcare practitioners, we define a hybrid, composable approach to healthcare simulations. Both the participatory simulation and the composable simulation are applied in the context of the New Karolinska Solna hospital in Sweden, a highly specialized new hospital. Results point to the need to accounting for variability in workflow processes and integration with existing IT infrastructure in hospitals. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Digital Library, 2017
Keyword
simulation, healthcare, composable
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Technology and Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-208166 (URN)
Conference
2017 Winter Simulation Conference
Funder
Stockholm County Council
Note

The paper is under review currently, and is yet to to be published.

QC 20170602

Available from: 2017-06-01 Created: 2017-06-01 Last updated: 2017-06-02Bibliographically approved

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