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Test Models and Algorithms for Model-Based Testing of Software Product Lines
Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Software product line (SPL) engineering has become common practice for mass production and customization of software. A software product line comprises a family of software systems which share a managed core set of artifacts. There are also a set of well-defined variabilities between the products of a product line. The main idea in SPL engineering is to enable systematic reuse in different phases of software development to reduce cost and time to release.

Model-Based Testing (MBT) is a technique that is widely used for checking the quality of software systems. In MBT, test cases are generated from an abstract model, which captures the desired behavior of the system. Then, the test cases are executed against a real implementation of the system and the compliance of the implementation to the specification is checked by comparing the observed outputs with the ones prescribed by the model.

Software product lines have been applied in many domains in which sys- tems are mission critical and MBT is one of the techniques that is widely used for quality assurance of such systems. As the number of products can be potentially large in an SPL, using conventional approaches for MBT of the products of an SPL individually and as single systems can be very costly and time consuming. Hence, several approaches have been proposed in order to enable systematic reuse in different phases of the MBT process.

An efficient modeling technique is the first step towards an efficient MBT technique for SPLs. There have been several formalisms proposed for modeling SPLs. In this thesis, we conduct a study on such modeling techniques, focusing on three fundamental formalisms, namely featured transition systems, modal transition systems, and product line calculus of communicating systems. We compare the expressive power and the succinctness of these formalisms.

Furthermore, we investigate adapting existing MBT methods for efficient testing of SPLs. As a part of this line of our research, we adapt the test case generation algorithm of one of the well-known black-box testing approaches, namely, Harmonized State Identification (HSI) method by exploiting the idea of delta-oriented programming. We apply the adapted test case generation algorithm to a case study taken from industry and the results show up to 50 percent reduction of time in test case generation by using the delta-oriented HSI method.

In line with our research on investigating existing MBT techniques, we compare the relative efficiency and effectiveness of the test case generation algorithms of the well-known Input-Output Conformance (ioco) testing approach and the complete ioco which is another testing technique used for input output transition systems that guarantees fault coverage. The comparison is done using three case studies taken from the automotive and railway domains. The obtained results show that complete ioco is more efficient in detecting deep faults (i.e., the faults reached through longer traces) in large state spaces while ioco is more efficient in detecting shallow faults (i.e., the faults reached through shorter traces) in small state spaces.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2017. , 91 p.
Series
Halmstad University Dissertations, 30
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-33893ISBN: 978-91-87045-62-2 (print)ISBN: 978-91-87045-63-9 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-33893DiVA: diva2:1098732
Presentation
2017-05-29, Trade Center, Kristian IV:s väg 3, Halmstad, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-07-05 Created: 2017-05-26 Last updated: 2017-07-05Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Delta-Oriented FSM-Based Testing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Delta-Oriented FSM-Based Testing
2015 (English)In: Formal Methods and Software Engineering: 17th International Conference on Formal Engineering Methods, ICFEM 2015, Paris, France, November 3-5, 2015, Proceedings / [ed] Michael Butler, Sylvain Conchon & Fatiha Zaïdi, Cham: Springer, 2015, Vol. 9407, 366-381 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We use the concept of delta-oriented programming to organize FSM-based test models in an incremental structure. We then exploit incremental FSM-based testing to make efficient use of this high-level structure in generating test cases. We show how our approach can lead to more efficient test-case generation, both by analyzing the complexity of the test-case generation algorithm and by applying the technique to a case study. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2015
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 9407
Keyword
Model-Based Testing, FSM-based Testing, HSI Method, Software Product Lines, Delta-Oriented Programming, DeltaJava
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-29999 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-25423-4_24 (DOI)2-s2.0-84949239517 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-25422-7 (ISBN)978-3-319-25423-4 (ISBN)
Conference
17th International Conference on Formal Engineering Methods (ICFEM 2015), Paris, France, November 3-5, 2015
Projects
EFFEMBACAUTO-CAAS
Funder
ELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile CommunicationsSwedish Research Council, 621-2014-5057Knowledge Foundation
Note

M.R. Mousavi—The work has been partially supported by the Swedish Research Council award number: 621-2014-5057 and the Swedish Knowledge Foundation in the context of the AUTO-CAAS HöG project.

Available from: 2015-12-09 Created: 2015-12-09 Last updated: 2017-05-26Bibliographically approved
2. Basic behavioral models for software product lines: Expressiveness and testing pre-orders
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Basic behavioral models for software product lines: Expressiveness and testing pre-orders
2016 (English)In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 123, 42-60 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to provide a rigorous foundation for Software Product Lines (SPLs), several fundamental approaches have been proposed to their formal behavioral modeling. In this paper, we provide a structured overview of those formalisms based on labeled transition systems and compare their expressiveness in terms of the set of products they can specify. Moreover, we define the notion of tests for each of these formalisms and show that our notions of testing precisely capture product derivation, i.e., all valid products will pass the set of test cases of the product line and each invalid product fails at least one test case of the product line. © 2015 The Authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016
Keyword
Software product lines, Formal specification, Behavioral specification, Labeled transition systems, Featured transition systems, Modal transition systems, Calculus of communicating systems (CCS), Product line CCS (PL-CCS)
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-29104 (URN)10.1016/j.scico.2015.06.005 (DOI)000374367600003 ()2-s2.0-84937604468 (Scopus ID)
Conference
29th Symposium On Applied Computing, Gyeongju, South Korea, March 24-28, 2014
Projects
EFFEMBAC
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2014-5057Knowledge Foundation, 20140312
Note

Issue with selected and extended papers from ACM SVT 2014.

Available from: 2015-08-10 Created: 2015-08-10 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
3. Corrigendum to Basic Behavioral Models for Software Product Lines: Expressiveness and Testing Equivalences
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Corrigendum to Basic Behavioral Models for Software Product Lines: Expressiveness and Testing Equivalences
(English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-33892 (URN)
Available from: 2017-05-26 Created: 2017-05-26 Last updated: 2017-05-29
4. Complete IOCO Test Cases: A Case Study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Complete IOCO Test Cases: A Case Study
2016 (English)In: A-TEST 2016 - Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Automating Test Case Design, Selection, and Evaluation, co-located with FSE 2016, New York, NY: ACM Press, 2016, 38-44 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Input/Output Transition Systems (IOTSs) have been widely used as test models in model-based testing. Traditionally, input output conformance testing (IOCO) has been used to generate random test cases from IOTSs. A recent test case generation method for IOTSs, called Complete IOCO, applies fault models to obtain complete test suites with guaranteed fault coverage for IOTSs. This paper measures the efficiency of Complete IOCO in comparison with the traditional IOCO test case generation implemented in the JTorX tool. To this end, we use a case study involving five specification models from the automotive and the railway domains. Faulty mutations of the specifications were produced in order to compare the efficiency of both test generation methods in killing them. The results indicate that Complete IOCO is more efficient in detecting deep faults in large state spaces while IOCO is more efficient in detecting shallow faults in small state spaces. © 2016 ACM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY: ACM Press, 2016
Keyword
Conformance testing, Input output conformance (IOCO), Complete input output conformance, Mealy input output transition systems, fault models
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-33212 (URN)10.1145/2994291.2994297 (DOI)2-s2.0-85007035449 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-4401-2 (ISBN)
Conference
7th International Workshop on Automating Test Case Design, Selection, and Evaluation (A-TEST 2016), Seattle, WA, USA, November 18, 2016
Projects
VR Project EFFEMBACKKS Project AUTO-CAAS
Funder
ELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile CommunicationsSwedish Research Council, 621-2014-5057Knowledge Foundation, 20140312
Note

The research of S. C. Paiva and A. Simao have been supported by Sao Paulo Research Foundation (Grants 2012/09650-5 and 2012/02232-3), Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel and National Counsel of Technological and Scientic Development.

Available from: 2017-02-06 Created: 2017-02-06 Last updated: 2017-05-26Bibliographically approved

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