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Introduction of SiC MOSFETs in Converters based on Si IGBTs: A Reliability and Efficiency Analysis
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems. ABB Corporate Research.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1755-1365
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2017 (English)In: 2017 IEEE 3rd International Future Energy Electronics Conference and ECCE Asia, IFEEC - ECCE Asia 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 1680-1685, article id 7992300Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Silicon Carbide (SiC) Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) have the potential to increase the power density in power electronics converters compared to the currently used silicon (Si). Their benefits are higher efficiency, higher switching speeds, and higher operating temperatures. Moreover, SiC MOSFETs, which are normally-off, offer the possibility to directly replace Si Isolated-Gate-BipolarTransistors (IGBTs) in already existing converter designs with minimal circuit changes. Nevertheless, as an emerging technology, the reliability performance remains to be investigated. A reliability analysis has been performed based on a full-bridge resonant converter rated at 60 kW for modern Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) power supplies. This analysis shows that introducing SiC devices will increase the lifetime of the converter while reducing the losses. The investment costs of replacing the Si IGBTs with SiC MOSFETs can thus be covered with the reduction of the losses over the economical operational lifetime. Furthermore, a theoretical analysis on how introducing SiC MOSFETs could increase the power density of the converter while maintaining the efficiency and the reliability. Finally, an analysis on introducing redundancy as a way to improve the reliability of the system has been performed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017. p. 1680-1685, article id 7992300
Keywords [en]
Silicon Carbide (SiC), Reliability, MOSFETs, IGBTs, Multichip Module, Reliability Engineering
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207751DOI: 10.1109/IFEEC.2017.7992300ISI: 000426696300299Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85034031177ISBN: 9781509051571 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-207751DiVA, id: diva2:1097942
Conference
3rd IEEE International Future Energy Electronics Conference and ECCE Asia, IFEEC - ECCE Asia 2017, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 3 June 2017 through 7 June 2017
Note

QC 20170530

Available from: 2017-05-23 Created: 2017-05-23 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. On Reliability of SiC Power Devices in Power Electronics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Reliability of SiC Power Devices in Power Electronics
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Silicon Carbide (SiC) is a wide-bandgap (WBG) semiconductor materialwhich has several advantages such as higher maximum electric field, lowerON-state resistance, higher switching speeds, and higher maximum allowablejunction operation temperature compared to Silicon (Si). In the 1.2 kV - 1.7kV voltage range, power devices in SiC are foreseen to replace Si Insulatedgatebipolar transistors (IGBTs) for applications targeting high efficiency,high operation temperatures and/or volume reductions. In particular, theSiC Metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) – which isvoltage controlled and normally-OFF – is the device of choice due to the easeof its implementation in designs using Si IGBTs.In this work the reliability of SiC devices, in particular that of the SiCMOSFET, has been investigated. First, the possibility of paralleling two discreteSiC MOSFETs is investigated and validated through static and dynamictests. Parallel-connection was found to be unproblematic. Secondly, drifts ofthe threshold voltage and forward voltage of the body diode of the SiC MOSFETare investigated through long-term tests. Also these reliability aspectswere found to be unproblematic. Thirdly, the impact of the package on thechip reliability is discussed through a modeling of the parasitic inductancesof a standard module and the impact of those inductances on the gate oxide.The model shows imbalances in stray inductances and parasitic elementsthat are problematic for high-speed switching. A long-term test on the impactof humidity on junction terminations of SiC MOSFETs dies and SiCSchottky dies encapsulated in the same standard package reveals early degradationfor some modules situated outdoors. Then, the short-circuit behaviorof three different types (bipolar junction transistor, junction field-effect transistor,and MOSFET) of 1.2 kV SiC switching devices is investigated throughexperiments and simulations. The necessity to turn OFF the device quicklyduring a fault is supported with a detailed electro-thermal analysis for eachdevice. Design guidelines towards a rugged and fast short-circuit protectionare derived. For each device, a short-circuit protection driver was designed,built and validated experimentally. The possibility of designing diode-lessconverters with SiC MOSFETs is investigated with focus on surge currenttests through the body diode. The discovered fault mechanism is the triggeringof the npn parasitic bipolar transistor. Finally, a life-cycle cost analysis(LCCA) has been performed revealing that the introduction of SiC MOSFETsin already existing IGBT designs is economically interesting. In fact,the initial investment is saved later on due to a higher efficiency. Moreover,the reliability is improved, which is beneficial from a risk-management pointof-view. The total investment over 20 years is approximately 30 % lower fora converter with SiC MOSFETs although the initial converter cost is 30 %higher.

Abstract [sv]

Kiselkarbid (SiC) är ett bredbandgapsmaterial (WBG) som har flera fördelar,såsom högre maximal elektrisk fältstyrka, lägre ON-state resitans, högreswitch-hastighet och högre maximalt tillåten arbetstemperatur jämförtmed kisel (Si). I spänningsområdet 1,2-1,7 kV förutses att effekthalvledarkomponenteri SiC kommer att ersätta Si Insulated-gate bipolar transistorer(IGBT:er) i tillämpningar där hög verkningsgrad, hög arbetstemperatur ellervolymreduktioner eftersträvas. Förstahandsvalet är en SiC Metal-oxidesemiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) som är spänningsstyrd ochnormally-OFF, egenskaper som möjliggör enkel implementering i konstruktionersom använder Si IGBTer.I detta arbete undersöks tillförlitligheten av SiC komponenter, specielltSiC MOSFET:en. Först undersöks möjligheten att parallellkoppla tvådiskretaSiC MOSFET:ar genom statiska och dynamiska prov. Parallellkopplingbefanns vara oproblematisk. Sedan undersöks drift av tröskelspänning ochbody-diodens framspänning genom långtidsprov. Ocksådessa tillförlitlighetsaspekterbefanns vara oproblematiska. Därefter undersöks kapslingens inverkanpåchip:et genom modellering av parasitiska induktanser hos en standardmoduloch inverkan av dessa induktanser pågate-oxiden. Modellen påvisaren obalans mellan de parasitiska induktanserna, något som kan varaproblematiskt för snabb switchning. Ett långtidstest av inverkan från fuktpåkant-termineringar för SiC-MOSFET:ar och SiC-Schottky-dioder i sammastandardmodul avslöjar tidiga tecken pådegradering för vissa moduler somvarit utomhus. Därefter undersöks kortslutningsbeteende för tre typer (bipolärtransistor,junction-field-effect transistor och MOSFET) av 1.2 kV effekthalvledarswitchargenom experiment och simuleringar. Behovet att stänga avkomponenten snabbt stöds av detaljerade elektrotermiska simuleringar för allatre komponenter. Konstruktionsriktlinjer för ett robust och snabbt kortslutningsskyddtas fram. För var och en av komponenterna byggs en drivkrets medkortslutningsskydd som valideras experimentellt. Möjligheten att konstrueradiodlösa omvandlare med SiC MOSFET:ar undersöks med fokus påstötströmmargenom body-dioden. Den upptäckta felmekanismen är ett oönskat tillslagav den parasitiska npn-transistorn. Slutligen utförs en livscykelanalys(LCCA) som avslöjar att introduktionen av SiC MOSFET:ar i existerandeIGBT-konstruktioner är ekonomiskt intressant. Den initiala investeringensparas in senare pågrund av en högre verkningsgrad. Dessutom förbättrastillförlitligheten, vilket är fördelaktigt ur ett riskhanteringsperspektiv. Dentotala investeringen över 20 år är ungefär 30 % lägre för en omvandlare medSiC MOSFET:ar även om initialkostnaden är 30 % högre.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. p. 215
Series
TRITA-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2017:038
Keywords
Silicon Carbide, Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET), Junction Field-Effect Transistor(JFET), Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT), Reliability, Failure Analysis, Reliability Testing, Short- Circuit Currents, Humidity, Resonant converter, Series-resonant converter (SLR), Base drive circuits, Gate drive circuits, Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA), Kiselkarbid, MOSFETar, JFETar, Bipolär Junction Transistor (BJT), Tillförlitlighet, Robusthet, Felanalys, Tillförlitlighetstestning, Kortslutningsströmmar, Luftfuktighet, Resonansomvandlare, Serie-resonansomvandlare (SLR), Basdrivkretsar, Gate-drivkretsar, Felskydd, Livscykelkostnadsanalys
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207763 (URN)978-91-7729-445-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-06-15, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH-huset, våningsplan 4, KTH Campus, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Note

QC 20170524

Available from: 2017-05-24 Created: 2017-05-23 Last updated: 2017-05-24Bibliographically approved

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