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Enhanced image analysis, a tool for precision metrology in the micro and macro world
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering. (Manufacturing and Metrology systems)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5214-5736
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The need for high speed and cost efficient inspection in manufacturing lineshas led to a vast usage of camera-based vision systems. The performance ofthese systems is sufficient to determine shape and size, but hardly to an accuracylevel comparable with traditional metrology tools. To achieve highprecision shape/position/defect measurements, the camera techniques haveto be combined with high performance image metrology techniques whichare developed and adapted to the manufactured components. The focus ofthis thesis is the application of enhanced image analysis as a tool for highprecision metrology. Dedicated algorithms have been developed, tested andevaluated in three practical cases ranging from micro manufacturing at submicronprecision to meter sized aerospace components with precision requirementsin the 10 μm range.The latter measurement challenge was solved by low cost standard consumerproducts, i.e. digital cameras in a stereo configuration and structured lightfrom a gobo-projector. Combined with high-precision image analysis and anew approach in camera calibration and 3D reconstruction for precise 3Dshape measurement of meter sized surfaces, the achievement was fulfilledand verified by two conventional measurement systems; a high precisioncoordinate measurement machine and a laser scanner.The sub-micron challenge was the implementation of image metrology forverification of micro manufacturing installations within a joint Europeaninfrastructure network, EUMINAfab. The results were an unpleasant surprisefor some of the participating laboratories, but became a big step forwardto improve the dimensional accuracy of the investigated laser micromachining, micro milling and micro-printing systems, since the accuracy ofthese techniques are very difficult to assess.The third high precision metrology challenge was the measurement of longrange,low-amplitude topographic structures on specular (shiny) aerodynamicsurfaces. In this case Fringe Reflection Technique (FRT) was appliedand image analysis algorithms were used to evaluate the fringe deformationas a measure of the surface slopes to obtain high resolution data. The resultwas compared with an interferometric analysis showing height deviation inthe range of tens of micrometers over a lateral extension of several cm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , p. 120
Series
TRITA-IIP, ISSN 1650-1888 ; TRITA IIP-17-05
Keywords [en]
Image processing, image metrology, precision metrology, image correlation, subpixel, accuracy, uncertainty
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Production Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207594ISBN: 978-91-7729-392-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-207594DiVA, id: diva2:1097193
Public defence
2017-06-15, M311, Brinellvägen 68, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
LOCOMACHSEUMINAfabCleansky
Note

QC 20170523

Available from: 2017-05-23 Created: 2017-05-22 Last updated: 2017-05-23Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. 3D precision measurements of meter sized surfaces using low cost illumination and camera techniques
Open this publication in new window or tab >>3D precision measurements of meter sized surfaces using low cost illumination and camera techniques
2017 (English)In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 28, no 4, article id 045403Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using dedicated stereo camera systems and structured light is a well-known method for measuring the 3D shape of large surfaces. However the problem is not trivial when high accuracy, in the range of few tens of microns, is needed. Many error sources need to be handled carefully in order to obtain high quality results. In this study, we present a measurement method based on low-cost camera and illumination solutions combined with high-precision image analysis and a new approach in camera calibration and 3D reconstruction. The setup consists of two ordinary digital cameras and a Gobo projector as a structured light source. A matrix of dots is projected onto the target area. The two cameras capture the images of the projected pattern on the object. The images are processed by advanced subpixel resolution algorithms prior to the application of the 3D reconstruction technique. The strength of the method lays in a different approach for calibration, 3D reconstruction, and high-precision image analysis algorithms. Using a 10 mm pitch pattern of the light dots, the method is capable of reconstructing the 3D shape of surfaces. The precision (1 sigma repeatability) in the measurements is < 10 mu m over a volume of 60 x 50 x 10 cm(3) at a hardware cost of similar to 2% of available advanced measurement techniques. The expanded uncertainty (95% confidence level) is estimated to be 83 mu m, with the largest uncertainty contribution coming from the absolute length of the metal ruler used as reference.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2017
Keywords
3D reconstruction, large area measurement, camera calibration, structured light, image processing, image metrology
National Category
Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-205442 (URN)10.1088/1361-6501/aa5ae6 (DOI)000395884500001 ()2-s2.0-85014505994 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170522

Available from: 2017-05-22 Created: 2017-05-22 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
2. Analysis of camera image repeatability using manual and automatic lenses
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of camera image repeatability using manual and automatic lenses
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Autofocus lenses are conveniently used for applications such as video metrology. In this study we investigate the stability of capturing images and show that for precision metrology applications the autofocus lenses are not as accurate as manual lenses. The investigation was done by analyzing series of seven repeated images captured from a highly accurate reference artifact using two different lenses; autofocus and manual, mounted on a same camera system.

Publisher
p. 7
Series
TRITA-IIP, ISSN 1650-1888 ; TRITA-IIP-17-03
Keywords
Camera calibration, camera stability, autofocus lens, repeatability, image processing
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207590 (URN)
Note

QC 20170523

Available from: 2017-05-22 Created: 2017-05-22 Last updated: 2017-05-23Bibliographically approved
3. Advanced image analysis verifies geometry performance of micro-milling systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Advanced image analysis verifies geometry performance of micro-milling systems
2017 (English)In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 56, no 10, p. 2912-2921Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Accurate dimensional measurement of micro-milled items is a challenge and machine specifications do not include operational parameters in the workshop. Therefore, a verification test that shows the machine's overall geometrical performance over its working area would help machine users in the assessment and adjustment of their equipment. In this study, we present an optical technique capable of finding micro-milled features at submicron uncertainty over working areas > 10 cm(2). The technique relies on an ultra-precision measurement microscope combined with advanced image analysis to get the center of gravity of milled cross-shaped features at subpixel levels. Special algorithms had to be developed to handle the disturbing influence of burr and milling marks. The results show repeatability, reproducibility, and axis straightness for three micro-milling facilities and also discovered an unknown 2 mu m amplitude undulation in one of them.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OPTICAL SOC AMER, 2017
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-206258 (URN)10.1364/AO.56.002912 (DOI)000398174500047 ()28375261 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85016553883 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170512

Available from: 2017-05-12 Created: 2017-05-12 Last updated: 2017-06-30Bibliographically approved
4. Lateral performance evaluation of laser micromachining by highprecision optical metrology and image analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lateral performance evaluation of laser micromachining by highprecision optical metrology and image analysis
2017 (English)In: Precision engineering, ISSN 0141-6359, E-ISSN 1873-2372, ISSN 0141-6359Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Today several techniques are available for micro-manufacturing. Yet, it is difficult to assess the precisionand lateral X,Y accuracy of these techniques. The available accuracy information is usually based on spec-ifications given by machine suppliers. This information is based on in-house laboratory tests performedby dedicated machine operators and within an adapted environment. In practice, the accuracy is likelyto vary due to environmental conditions, materials and operator skills. In order to check the specifica-tions in realistic environments the EUMINAfab infrastructure consortium initiated a set of independenthigh precision onsite verification tests on different laser micromachining installations. In addition toproviding performance verification, it gave the participating partners real capability information of theirequipment and possibilities to improve machining performance to a higher level. In this study a compre-hensive verification test was designed and carried out by using a high precision metrology method for 2Dmeasurements based on subpixel resolution image analysis. This methodology improved our knowledgeof the capabilities of three laser micromachining installations, and showed that specifications at singlemicron levels are hard to obtain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Verification test, Performance evaluation, Quality audit, Error, Accuracy, Precision metrology, Repeatability, Laser micro-machining, Image processing, Image analysis, Image metrology, Sub-pixel
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Production Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207583 (URN)10.1016/j.precisioneng.2017.04.008 (DOI)000409151100002 ()2-s2.0-85018411058 (Scopus ID)
Projects
EUMINAfab
Note

QC 20170523

Available from: 2017-05-22 Created: 2017-05-22 Last updated: 2017-10-11Bibliographically approved
5. Performance evaluation of a micro screen printing installation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance evaluation of a micro screen printing installation
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Micro- and nano-manufacturing is an expanding industry and many different manufacturing techniques are used, from advanced focused ion beam treatment to reasonably simple printing technologies. Common to all of them are the needs to verify the manufactured geometries and dimensions. This report presents the results of the second round of benchmarking activities within the EUMINAfab European Research Infrastructure, in order to establish more knowledge about the capabilities of a screen printing installation. To obtain a better understanding of the accuracy of the screen printing installation, a precise verification test is needed to measure the absolute performance of the machine. Predicted performance and capability information is based on specifications given for the machine installation by the machine deliverer. But, in practice the absolute performances of the installation is often off from the specification. When forming the EUMINAfab infrastructure consortium it was decided that independent high precision verification tests should be made on different installations to help the micro-manufacturers to get the real capability information of their equipment and be able to improve performance to a higher EUMINAfab level. In this study a comprehensive verification test was designed and carried out by using an ultra-precision metrology method in order to establish more knowledge about the capabilities of the screen printing equipment. The measurement results show the machine’s X,Y position accuracy, pseudo-repeatability and reproducibility. It is not as good as predicted.

Publisher
p. 9
Series
TRITA-IIP, ISSN 1650-1888
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207591 (URN)
Note

QC 20170523

Available from: 2017-05-22 Created: 2017-05-22 Last updated: 2017-05-23Bibliographically approved
6. Optical measurement of waviness on specular surfaces by Fringe Reflection Technique, FRT
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optical measurement of waviness on specular surfaces by Fringe Reflection Technique, FRT
2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, EUSPEN 2012, euspen , 2012, Vol. 1, p. 117-120Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The need for accurate measurements of long range low amplitude topographic structure of specular (glossy) surfaces has been increased in automotive and aircraft industries. Optical measurement techniques are the most successful techniques to measure different surface structures with high resolution and high accuracy and at high speed. However, for glossy, specular surfaces many commercial techniques based on surface scattering fail. Fringe Reflection Technique (FRT), mimicking the human observation process of specular surfaces, is then a robust and suitable solution for measuring these surfaces. In our research we are interested in measuring waviness in the micron range over cm long spatial wavelengths. The artefact investigated is a flat casted and painted composite surface. By using a simple and non-expensive FRT-setup, combined with image analysis algorithms high resolution data were obtained. The results match well with reference data obtained by a Coherix interferometer with height measures of some ten micrometers over waviness having a lateral structure of several cm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
euspen, 2012
Keywords
Surface waviness, fringe reflection, precision, optical measurement, metrology
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Production
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-116501 (URN)2-s2.0-84911384574 (Scopus ID)9780956679000 (ISBN)
Conference
12th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, EUSPEN 2012, Stockholm, Sweden, 4 June 2012 through 7 June 2012
Projects
PRICE
Funder
VINNOVAXPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note

QC 20130522

Available from: 2013-01-21 Created: 2013-01-21 Last updated: 2017-05-23Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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  • Other style
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  • en-GB
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  • nn-NO
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Output format
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