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A systematic approach for major renovation of residential buildings
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, buildings are responsible for about 40 % of total energy use and about 10 % of total CO2 emissions Today more than 60 % of existing Swedish residential buildings are over 40 years old and are in need of major renovation. In addition, 15 % of all multi-family buildings and 27 % of all single-family houses were built before 1945. The increased energy use and threat from CO2 emissions of the building sector create a need for energy efficiency. The important role that renovation of residential buildings will play in reducing the total energy used by the Swedish building sector as well as in reducing primary energy use and CO2 emissions on both the national and global levels has been the impetus for the studies included in this thesis.

The aim of the current research is to develop a methodology from a system perspective which can be used to analyze the energy use, optimal life cycle cost (LCC), energy efficiency measure (EEM) package, indoor environment, CO2 emissions, and primary energy use of a building or a community during major renovation. The developed methodology accomplished at three different levels, i.e. building level, cluster level and district level. The methodology considers both energy efficiency and economic viability during building renovation and will also play an important role in overall urban planning. The studied buildings include both non-listed and listed residential buildings and the tools used include building energy simulation (BES), survey, technical measurements, LCC optimization and building categorization.

The results show that the combination of BES, technical measurements and surveys provides a holistic approach for evaluation of energy use and indoor environment of the studied residential buildings. The results from the current study also show that the 2020 energy target, i.e., reduction of energy use by 20 %, for the building sector can be achieved by all the studied building types and that the total LCC of these buildings are below the cost-optimal point. In comparison, the 2050 energy target, i.e., reduction of energy use by 50 %, for the building sector may be achieved by the non-listed buildings, but when the constraints relevant to listed buildings are added the cost-optimality changes as some EEMs in direct conflict with the building’s heritage value may not be implemented.

The investigation of primary energy use and CO2 emissions by the residential buildings show that the higher the energy saving, the lower the primary energy use becomes, and vice versa. With the same energy saving, the heating system with higher primary energy factor results in higher primary energy use. From a CO2 emissions point of view, EEM packages proposed to help buildings connected to a CHP based district heating system, to reduce the energy use or LCC are not consistently effective. Since these EEM packages will reduce district heating demand, the electricity produced in the CHP plant will also decrease. When the biomass is considered a limited resource, measures such as investment in a biofuel boiler are not favourable from the CO2 emissions point of view. The current study has also shown that combining building categorization method and LCC optimization method will help the community to reduce its energy use, primary energy use and CO2 emissions in a systematic and strategic way.

Abstract [sv]

I Sverige, står byggnadssektorn för cirka 40 % av den totala energianvändningen och cirka 10 % av CO2-utsläppen. Idag är mer än 60 % av befintliga svenska bostäder över 40 år gamla och i stort behov av renovering. Dessutom är 15 % av alla flerbostadshus och 27 % av alla småhus byggda före 1945. Den ökade energianvändningen och hotet från CO2-utsläpp från byggsektorn skapar ett behov av energieffektivisering. Grunden för studierna i denna avhandling är den stora betydelse som renoveringen av bostäder har, såväl för att kunna minska den totala energianvändningen som den primärenergianvändningen och CO2-utsläppen på både nationell och global nivå.

Syftet med denna forskning är att utveckla en metodik ur ett systematiskt perspektiv som kan användas för att analysera energianvändning, finna optimal livscykelkostnad (LCC), skapa energieffektiviseringsåtgärdspaket, undersöka inomhusmiljöer, beräkna CO2-utsläpp och primärenergianvändning i en byggnad eller ett samhälle vid omfattande renovering. Den utvecklade metodiken som har använts i de aktuella studierna är på tre olika nivåer: byggnadsnivå, klusternivå och stadsdelsnivå. Metodiken avser både energieffektivitet och ekonomisk lönsamhet vid renovering av byggnader och kommer också att spela en viktig roll i den övergripande stadsplaneringen. De studerande byggnaderna i denna avhandling innefattar både historiska och icke-historiska bostäder. De använda verktygen inkluderar building energy simulering (BES), enkätundersökning, tekniska mätningar, LCC-optimering och byggnadskategorisering.

Resultaten visar att kombinationen av BES, tekniska mätningar och enkätundersökning ger en god helhetsbild för utvärdering av energianvändning och inomhusmiljö av den studerade byggnaden. Resultaten från den aktuella studien visar också att 2020-energimålet, d.v.s. en minskning av energianvändningen med 20 % till 2020 av byggsektorn, kan uppnås i alla undersökta byggnader och att den totala LCC av dessa byggnader ligger under den kostnadsoptimala punkten. I jämförelse, kan 2050-energimålet, d.v.s. en minskning av energianvändningen med 50 % till 2050, kan uppnås i icke-historiska byggnader, men med hänsyn tagen till begränsningarna för historiska byggnader, ändras de kostnadsoptimala lösningarna, eftersom vissa energieffektiviseringsåtgärder är i direkt konflikt med byggnadens kulturhistoriska värde och därför inte kan genomföras.

Undersökningen av primärenergianvändning och CO2-utsläpp i de studerade byggnaderna visar, att ju högre energibesparingen är, desto lägre blir primärenergianvändningen, och vise versa. Med lika mycket energibesparing, resulterar värmesystemet med högre primärenergifaktor i högre primärenergianvändning. Sett från CO2-utsläppssynvinkel, är de energieffektiviseringsåtgärdspaket, som kan hjälpa byggnader anslutna till ett kraftvärmebaserat fjärrvärmesystem att minska energianvändningen eller LCC, inte effektiva, eftersom dessa åtgärdspaket kommer att minska fjärrvärmeanvändningen. Detta leder till att mängden producerad el i ett kraftvärmeverk också kommer att minskas. När biobränsle betraktas som en begränsad resurs, är åtgärder som investering i en biobränslepanna inte energieffektiva från en CO2-utsläppssynvikel. Den aktuella studien visar också att kombinationen av byggnadskategorisering och LCC-optimering kommer att hjälpa byggnadssektorn att minska sin energianvändning, primärenergianvändning och CO2-utsläpp på ett systematiskt och strategiskt sätt.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017. , 75 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Information Science. Dissertation, ISSN 1403-6231 ; 1860
Keyword [en]
energy efficiency, renovation, residential buildings, listed buildings, simulation, optimization, LCC, categorization, energy efficiency measure package, indoor environment, energy targets, CO2 emission, primary energy use
Keyword [sv]
energieffektivisering, renovering, bostäder, historiska byggnader, simulering, optimering, LCC, kategorisering, energieffektiviseringsåtgärdspaket, inomhusmiljö, energimål, CO2-utsläpp, primärenergianvändning
National Category
Energy Systems Building Technologies Construction Management Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137445DOI: 10.3384/diss-diva-137445ISBN: 9789176855072 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-137445DiVA: diva2:1095803
Public defence
2017-06-09, ACAS, hus A, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2017-05-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Comprehensive investigation on energy retrofits in eleven multi-family buildings in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comprehensive investigation on energy retrofits in eleven multi-family buildings in Sweden
2014 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 84, 704-715 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rapidly growing energy use in the building sector is considered a serious problem by both the European Union (EU) and Sweden. Reducing energy demand in the building sector is important for Sweden in order to reach national energy goals for reduced energy use and CO2 emissions in the future. This project aims to find energy efficiency potential in multifamily buildings in the Gävleborg region, which is a cold climate region in Sweden. Measurements and simulations have been made on eleven multifamily buildings from the whole region. The results include different energy efficiency measure packages, profitability analysis of individual measures and packages, and primary energy use analysis. The paper also includes CO2 emissions reduction analysis based on different methods. The project shows that the multifamily buildings in the Gävleborg region have good potential to reduce their energy use by more than 50%, which in turn will contribute to 43% primary energy reduction and 48% CO2 emissions reduction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111051 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.08.044 (DOI)000345182000070 ()
Available from: 2014-10-06 Created: 2014-10-06 Last updated: 2017-05-16Bibliographically approved
2. Evaluating indoor environment of a retrofitted multi-family building with improved energy performance in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating indoor environment of a retrofitted multi-family building with improved energy performance in Sweden
2015 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 102, 32-44 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The building sector within both the EU and Sweden accounts for about 40% of total energy use. It is therefore important to introduce energy efficiency measures in this sector in order to meet the national implementation of the Building Performance Directive. Retrofits that result in improved energy performance are important in order to meet national energy targets, but the impact on the indoor environment has to be considered. Properly chosen energy efficiency measures may affect the indoor environment positively. One retrofitted multi-family building, located in the city of Linkoping, Sweden, was chosen as the study object. The building represents a common type of construction in Sweden. This study presents an evaluation of both the indoor environment and energy use of the retrofitted building in comparison with a similar non-retrofitted building from the same area. The results show that the building has potential to reach a 39% reduction of space heating demand. The indoor environment has been improved compared to the non-retrofitted building. Adding external blinds from 15 May to 15 September between 10am-12pm on the east side and 12pm-3pm on the west side seems to be the best option for improving the indoor climate during summer. (c) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keyword
Multi-family building; Retrofit; Building energy simulation; Energy use; Indoor environment
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120720 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.05.021 (DOI)000358458100003 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency

Available from: 2015-08-24 Created: 2015-08-24 Last updated: 2017-05-16
3. A Method to Assess the Potential for and Consequences of Energy Retrofits in Swedish Historic Buildings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Method to Assess the Potential for and Consequences of Energy Retrofits in Swedish Historic Buildings
Show others...
2014 (English)In: The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice, ISSN 1756-7505, E-ISSN 1756-7513, Vol. 5, no 2, 150-166 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Swedish research project Potential and Policies for Energy Efficiency in Swedish Historic Buildings aims to investigate the interdependency between political energy targets and effects on the built heritage. The first part of this paper presents an iterative and interactive method to assess the potential for and consequences of improving the energy performance in a stock of historic buildings. Key elements in the method are: categorisation of the building stock, identifying targets, assessment of measures, and life-cycle cost optimisation. In the second part of the paper, the method is applied to a typical Swedish building. The selected case study shows how the method allows for an interaction between the quantitative assessment of the techno-economic optimisation and the qualitative assessment of vulnerability and other risks. Through a multidisciplinary dialogue and iteration it is possible to arrive at a solution that best balances energy conservation and building conservation in a given decision context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Maney Publishing, 2014
Keyword
cultural significance; energy efficiency; heritage values; historic buildings; life-cycle cost
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109231 (URN)10.1179/1756750514Z.00000000055 (DOI)000338773000006 ()
Available from: 2014-08-12 Created: 2014-08-11 Last updated: 2017-05-16Bibliographically approved
4. LCC assessments and environmental impacts on the energy renovation of a multi-family building from the 1890s
Open this publication in new window or tab >>LCC assessments and environmental impacts on the energy renovation of a multi-family building from the 1890s
2016 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 133, 823-833 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The 2020 and 2050 energy targets increase requirements on energy performance in the building stock, thus affecting both listed and non-listed buildings. It is important to select appropriate and cost-optimal energy efficiency measures, using e.g. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) optimization. The aim of this paper is to find cost-optimal packages of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) as well as to explore the effects of specific predesigned energy target values for a listed Swedish multi-family building from the 1890s. The purpose is also to show the effects on energy use, LCC, primary energy use and CO2 emissions of different energy targets, discount rates, electricity prices and geographic locations. The results show that separate energy targets could be an effective way to simplify the implementation for listed buildings. Furthermore, a cost-optimal package of EEMs is more sensitive to changes in discount rate than in electricity price. The energy renovation has impact on the primary energy use and CO2 emissions. The lower the discount rate is, the more EEMs will be implemented and the easier the national energy targets may be achieved. A higher electricity price also leads to more EEMs being implemented but at the same time higher running costs. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, 2016
Keyword
LCC assessments; Environmental impacts; Energy efficiency measures package; Listed/non-listed building; Renovation; Energy targets
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133507 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.10.040 (DOI)000389087300072 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency

Available from: 2016-12-30 Created: 2016-12-29 Last updated: 2017-05-16

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