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Frequency Noise in Coherent Optical Systems: Impact and Mitigation Methods
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The increase in capacity demand along with the advancement in digital signal processing (DSP) have recently revived the interest in coherent optical communications and led to its commercialization. However, design and development of robust DSP algorithms for example for carrier phase recovery (CPR) becomes complex as we opt for high order modulation formats such as 16QAM and beyond. Further, electrical-domain dispersion compensation (EDC), while providing many advantages, makes the system more susceptible to laser frequency noise (FN). For instance, in coherent optical links with post-reception EDC, while the transmitter frequency noise causes only phase impairment, the local oscillator (LO) FN in these systems results in a noise enhancement in both amplitude and phase. This noise is commonly known as equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN). It results in asymmetric requirements for transmitter laser and LO laser. Further, the system design in the presence of lasers with non-white frequency noise becomes increasingly challenging for increased capacity-distance product.

The main contributions of this thesis are, firstly, an experimentally validated theory of coherent optical links with lasers having general non-white frequency noise spectrum and corresponding system/laser design criteria and mitigation technique. Secondly, low complexity and high phase noise tolerant CPR for high order modulation formats.

The general theory propounded in this thesis elucidates the origin of the laser frequency noise induced noise enhancement in coherent optical links with different DSP configurations. The thesis establishes the existence of multiple frequency noise regimes and shows that each regime results in different set of impairments. The influence of the impairments due to some regimes can ideally be reduced by optimizing the corresponding mitigation algorithms, while other regimes cause irretrievable impairments. Experimentally validated theoretical boundaries of these regimes and corresponding criteria applicable to system/laser design are provided. Further, an EEPN mitigation method and its two possible implementations are proposed and discussed.

The thesis also demonstrates an intrinsic limitation of the conventional Blind Phase Search (BPS) algorithm due to angular quantization and provides methods to overcome it. Finally, this thesis proposes and demonstrates single stage and multi-stage carrier phase recovery algorithms for compensation of phase impairments due to the two lasers for higher order circular and square modulations. The proposed methods outperform the state of art algorithms both in performance and in complexity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , 86 p.
Series
TRITA-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X
Keyword [en]
Equalization enhanced phase noise, frequency noise, coherent optical communications, carrier phase recovery, carrier phase estimation, circular quadrature amplitude modulation, EEPN, CmQAM, blind phase search, phase noise
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207072ISBN: 978-91-7729-425-2 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-207072DiVA: diva2:1095544
Public defence
2017-06-09, Sal. C, KTH, Electrum 229, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
European project ICONE gr. #608099
Note

QC 20170516

Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-15 Last updated: 2017-05-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Impact of local oscillator frequency noise on coherent optical systems with electronic dispersion compensation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of local oscillator frequency noise on coherent optical systems with electronic dispersion compensation
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2015 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 23, no 9, 11221-11226 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A theoretical investigation of the equalization-enhanced phase noise (EEPN) and its mitigation is presented. We show with a frequency domain analysis that the EEPN results from the non-linear inter-mixing between the sidebands of the dispersed signal and the noise sidebands of the local oscillator. It is further shown and validated with system simulations that the transmission penalty is mainly due to the slow optical frequency fluctuations of the local oscillator. Hence, elimination of the frequency noise below a certain cut-off frequency significantly reduces the transmission penalty, even when frequency noise would otherwise cause an error floor. The required cut-off frequency increases linearly with the white frequency noise level and hence the linewidth of the local oscillator laser, but is virtually independent of the symbol rate and the accumulated dispersion.

Keyword
Enhanced Phase Noise, RF Pilot, Equalization, Transmission, EEPN
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-169270 (URN)10.1364/OE.23.011221 (DOI)000354337700035 ()25969218 (PubMedID)
Note

QC 20150615

Available from: 2015-06-15 Created: 2015-06-12 Last updated: 2017-05-15Bibliographically approved
2. A path to use large linewidth LO in 28 Gbd 16-QAM metro links
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A path to use large linewidth LO in 28 Gbd 16-QAM metro links
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2015 (English)In: European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC, IEEE , 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We experimentally investigate the possibility to mitigate local oscillator induced Equalization Enhanced Phase Noise penalty. The results pave the way for the use of even 10 MHz linewidth local oscillator lasers in 28 Gbd 16-QAM metro links.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2015
Keyword
Phase noise, Quadrature amplitude modulation, Equalization enhanced phase noise, Local oscillators, Optical communication
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186812 (URN)10.1109/ECOC.2015.7341948 (DOI)000377373100339 ()2-s2.0-84957827876 (Scopus ID)9788460817413 (ISBN)
Conference
41st European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2015, 27 September 2015 through 1 October 2015
Note

QC 20160527

Available from: 2016-05-27 Created: 2016-05-13 Last updated: 2017-05-15Bibliographically approved
3. Comprehensive study of equalization-enhanced phase noise in coherent optical systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comprehensive study of equalization-enhanced phase noise in coherent optical systems
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Lightwave Technology, ISSN 0733-8724, E-ISSN 1558-2213, Vol. 33, no 23, 4834-4841 p., 7299252Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A thorough analysis of equalization-enhanced phase noise (EEPN) and its impact on the coherent optical system is presented. We show with a time-domain analysis that EEPN is caused due to the interference of multiple delayed versions of the dispersed signal, generated by intermixing of the received dispersed signal, and the noise side bands of the local oscillator (LO) in the photodetectors. We derive statistical properties such as the mean, variance, and error vector magnitude of the received signal influenced with EEPN. We show that in coherent optical systems utilizing electronic dispersion compensation, this noise corresponds to multipath fading in wireless communication systems. Closed-form expressions of necessary LO linewidth and/or mitigation bandwidth for a general system configuration and specified OSNR penalty are given. The expressions for system design parameters, validated with system simulations, show that higher order modulation formats, such as 16-quadrature amplitude modulation and beyond, put stringent demands on the LO linewidth unless a mitigation technique is used.

Keyword
Coherent receivers, digital signal processing (DSP), electronic dispersion compensation (EDC), equalization-enhanced phase noise (EEPN), laser linewidth, multipath fading, optical communication, quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), Amplitude modulation, Dispersion compensation, Linewidth, Optical systems, Phase noise, Quadrature amplitude modulation, Signal processing, Signal receivers, Time domain analysis, Wireless telecommunication systems, Electronic dispersion compensation, Equalization enhanced phase noises (EEPN), Laser line-width, Quadrature-amplitude modulations (QAM), Modulation
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186809 (URN)10.1109/JLT.2015.2491363 (DOI)2-s2.0-84960120889 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160527

Available from: 2016-05-27 Created: 2016-05-13 Last updated: 2017-05-15Bibliographically approved
4. Design of coherent optical systems impaired by EEPN
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of coherent optical systems impaired by EEPN
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2016 (English)In: 2016 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition, OFC 2016, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present experimental validation of novel analytical expressions essential for the design of coherent optical systems impaired by EEPN. These expressions enable a simple and accurate EEPN analysis for any system specification. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016
Keyword
Optical fibers, Specifications, Analytical expressions, Coherent optical systems, Experimental validations, System specification, Optical fiber communication
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-194977 (URN)000382938100307 ()2-s2.0-84986208236 (Scopus ID)9781943580071 (ISBN)
Conference
2016 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition, OFC 2016, 20 March 2016 through 24 March 2016
Note

QC 20161110

Available from: 2016-11-10 Created: 2016-11-01 Last updated: 2017-05-15Bibliographically approved
5. Laser Frequency Noise in Coherent Optical Systems: Spectral Regimes and Impairments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laser Frequency Noise in Coherent Optical Systems: Spectral Regimes and Impairments
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2017 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 844Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Coherent communication networks are based on the ability to use multiple dimensions of the lightwave together with electrical domain compensation of transmission impairments. Electrical-domain dispersion compensation (EDC) provides many advantages such as network flexibility and enhanced fiber nonlinearity tolerance, but makes the system more susceptible to laser frequency noise (FN), e.g. to the local oscillator FN in systems with post-reception EDC. Although this problem has been extensively studied, statistically, for links assuming lasers with white-FN, many questions remain unanswered. Particularly, the influence of a realistic non-white FN-spectrum due to e.g., the presence of 1/f-flicker and carrier induced noise remains elusive and a statistical analysis becomes insufficient. Here we provide an experimentally validated theory for coherent optical links with lasers having general non-white FN-spectrum and EDC. The fundamental reason of the increased susceptibility is shown to be FN-induced symbol displacement that causes timing jitter and/or inter/intra symbol interference. We establish that different regimes of the laser FN-spectrum cause a different set of impairments. The influence of the impairments due to some regimes can be reduced by optimizing the corresponding mitigation algorithms, while other regimes cause irretrievable impairments. Theoretical boundaries of these regimes and corresponding criteria applicable to system/laser design are provided.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2017
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-206683 (URN)10.1038/s41598-017-00868-4 (DOI)000399186000008 ()28404988 (PubMedID)
Note

QC 20170510

Available from: 2017-05-10 Created: 2017-05-10 Last updated: 2017-05-15Bibliographically approved
6. Influence of Lasers with Non-White Frequency Noise on the Design of Coherent Optical Links
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Lasers with Non-White Frequency Noise on the Design of Coherent Optical Links
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Poster (Refereed)
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207118 (URN)
Conference
Optical Fiber Conference OFC
Note

QC 20170516

Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2017-05-16Bibliographically approved
7. Equalization Enhanced Phase Noise in Coherent Optical Systems with Digital Pre- and Post-Processing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Equalization Enhanced Phase Noise in Coherent Optical Systems with Digital Pre- and Post-Processing
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2016 (English)In: PHOTONICS, ISSN 2304-6732, Vol. 3, no 2, 12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present an extensive study of equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN) in coherent optical system for all practical electronic dispersion compensation configurations. It is shown that there are only eight practicable all-electronic impairment mitigation configurations. The non-linear and time variant analysis reveals that the existence and the cause of EEPN depend on the digital signal processing (DSP) schemes. There are three schemes that in principle do not cause EEPN. Analysis further reveals the statistical equivalence of the remaining five system configurations resulting in EEPN. In three of them, EEPN is due to phase noise of the transmitting laser, while in the remaining two, EEPN is caused by the local oscillator. We provide a simple look-up table for the system designer to make an informative decision regarding practicable configuration choice and design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2016
Keyword
coherent receivers, quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), equalization-enhanced phase noise (EEPN), laser linewidth, optical communication, digital signal processing (DSP), electronic dispersion compensation (EDC)
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-192765 (URN)10.3390/photonics3020012 (DOI)000381860000001 ()
Note

QC 20160926

Available from: 2016-09-26 Created: 2016-09-20 Last updated: 2017-05-15Bibliographically approved
8. Mitigation of EEPN in Coherent Optical Systems With Low-Speed Digital Coherence Enhancement
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mitigation of EEPN in Coherent Optical Systems With Low-Speed Digital Coherence Enhancement
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2015 (English)In: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, ISSN 1041-1135, E-ISSN 1941-0174, Vol. 27, no 18, 1942-1945 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A method for mitigating local oscillator (LO) phase noise-induced impairment, also known as equalization-enhanced phase noise, in coherent optical systems is discussed. The method is suitable for real-time implementation and requires hardware with a bandwidth much lower than the signal baud rate, even for a system utilizing conventional semiconductor laser as LO. We evaluate the required parameters like interpolation technique, electrical signal-to-noise ratio at digital coherence enhancement (DCE) front end, for long haul transmission links having quadrature phase shift keying and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation formats. We show that the method can be implemented using a low-speed DCE front end and a simple digital linear interpolator with small (<1 dB) implementation penalty even in cases that would otherwise result in error floor.

Keyword
Coherent receivers, quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), equalization-enhanced phase noise, laser linewidth, optical communication
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173759 (URN)10.1109/LPT.2015.2447839 (DOI)000360375000013 ()2-s2.0-84940376664 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150923

Available from: 2015-09-23 Created: 2015-09-18 Last updated: 2017-05-15Bibliographically approved
9. Overcoming EEPN in Coherent Transmission Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overcoming EEPN in Coherent Transmission Systems
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2016 (English)In: 2016 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS (CLEO), IEEE conference proceedings, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We for the first time experimentally demonstrate a simple technique to overcome EEPN. Performance recovery from above FEC to <1 dB penalty for 28 Gbd 16-QAM over 520 km with high LO linewidth is achieved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2016
Series
Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, ISSN 2160-9020
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-201284 (URN)000391286402479 ()2-s2.0-85010682957 (Scopus ID)978-1-9435-8011-8 (ISBN)
Conference
Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), JUN 05-10, 2016, San Jose, CA
Note

QC 20170215

Available from: 2017-02-15 Created: 2017-02-15 Last updated: 2017-05-15Bibliographically approved
10. Blind  phase  search  with  angular  quantization  noise mitigation for efficient carrier phase recovery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blind  phase  search  with  angular  quantization  noise mitigation for efficient carrier phase recovery
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(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207114 (URN)
Note

QC 20170516

Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2017-05-16Bibliographically approved
11. High Performance and Low Complexity Carrier Phase Recovery Schemes for 64-QAM Coherent Optical Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High Performance and Low Complexity Carrier Phase Recovery Schemes for 64-QAM Coherent Optical Systems
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207115 (URN)10.1364/OFC.2017.W2A.53 (DOI)000403405800605 ()2-s2.0-85019942945 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Optical Fiber Conference OFC
Note

QC 20170516

Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2017-07-11Bibliographically approved
12. Design of Multi-Stage Carrier Phase Recovery Schemes for  high  order  Coherent  Optical  mQAM  Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of Multi-Stage Carrier Phase Recovery Schemes for  high  order  Coherent  Optical  mQAM  Systems
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(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207116 (URN)
Note

QC 20170516

Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2017-05-16Bibliographically approved
13. Carrier Phase Recovery Algorithms for Coherent Optical Circular mQAM Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carrier Phase Recovery Algorithms for Coherent Optical Circular mQAM Systems
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Lightwave Technology, ISSN 0733-8724, E-ISSN 1558-2213, Vol. 34, no 11, 2717-2723 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The phase noise tolerance of circular multilevel quadrature amplitude modulation (C-mQAM) constellations employing different carrier phase recovery (CPR) algorithms is studied. A differential decoding scheme and a bit mapping for this type of constellations are proposed. A novel CPR scheme for C-mQAM constellations is also presented. The particular distribution of the constellation points in a C-mQAM signal is exploited to reduce the required Nth power for the removal of the modulation component by a factor of two. Hence, the computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is drastically reduced. The combined linewidth symbol duration product (Delta nu T-s) tolerance of different CPR algorithms for C-mQAM constellations is studied and compared with the proposed CPR scheme. The results are analyzed at 3.8e-3 and 1e-2 bit error rate forward error correction limits. The proposed CPR scheme achieves similar Delta nu Ts tolerance compared to single stage BPS algorithm while its computational complexity is reduced by group factors of 27.2 vertical bar 32.3, and 30.5 vertical bar 32.6 (in the form of multipliers vertical bar adders) for C-16QAM and C-64QAM, respectively.

Keyword
Carrier phase recovery (CPR), circular quadrature amplitude modulation (C-mQAM), coherent detection, differential decoding, phase noise
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-190512 (URN)10.1109/JLT.2016.2545339 (DOI)000379751000015 ()2-s2.0-84971351207 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160818

Available from: 2016-08-18 Created: 2016-08-12 Last updated: 2017-05-15Bibliographically approved
14. Two-Stage n-PSK Partitioning Carrier Phase Recovery Scheme for Circular mQAM Coherent Optical Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Two-Stage n-PSK Partitioning Carrier Phase Recovery Scheme for Circular mQAM Coherent Optical Systems
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2016 (English)In: PHOTONICS, ISSN 2304-6732, Vol. 3, no 2, 37Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel two-stage n-PSK partitioning carrier phase recovery (CPR) scheme for circular multilevel quadrature amplitude modulation (C-mQAM) constellations is presented. The first stage of the algorithm provides an initial rough estimation of the received constellation, which is utilized in the second stage for CPR. The performance of the proposed algorithm is studied through extensive simulations at the forward error correction bit error rate targets of 3.8 x 10(-3) and 1 x 10(-2) and is compared with different CPR algorithms. A significant improvement in the combined linewidth symbol duration product (Delta vT(s)) tolerance is achieved compared to the single-stage n-PSK partitioning scheme. Superior performance in the Delta vT(s) tolerance compared to the blind phase search algorithm is also reported. The relative improvements with respect to other CPR schemes are also validated experimentally for a 28-Gbaud C-16QAM back-to-back transmission system. The computational complexity of the proposed CPR scheme is studied, and reduction factors of 24.5 broken vertical bar 30.1 and 59.1 broken vertical bar 63.3 are achieved for C-16QAM and C-64QAM, respectively, compared to single-stage BPS in the form of multipliers broken vertical bar adders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2016
Keyword
carrier phase recovery (CPR), circular quadrature amplitude modulation (C-mQAM), coherent detection, phase noise
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-192766 (URN)10.3390/photonics3020037 (DOI)000381860000026 ()
Note

QC 20160926

Available from: 2016-09-26 Created: 2016-09-20 Last updated: 2017-05-15Bibliographically approved
15. Adaptive Boundaries Scheme for Cycle-Slip Mitigation in C-mQAM Coherent Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptive Boundaries Scheme for Cycle-Slip Mitigation in C-mQAM Coherent Systems
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2015 (English)In: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, ISSN 1041-1135, E-ISSN 1941-0174, Vol. 27, no 20, 2154-2157 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We propose a method for cycle-slip mitigation in circular multilevel quadrature amplitude modulation (C-mQAM) coherent optical systems, with constellation rotational asymmetry, based on an adaptive boundaries approach. The impact of cycle-slips in C-mQAM coming from Viterbi-Viterbi algorithm limits the phase noise tolerance. By introducing adaptive boundaries and a differential coding scheme, the ambiguity of asymmetrical rotation of constellation can be effectively removed. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated for a C-16QAM and C-64QAM for various laser linewidths. Results show a noticeable improvement in linewidth symbol duration product (Delta(upsilon) . T-S) tolerance compared with the previous studies on C-mQAM and mQAM constellations. The Delta(upsilon) . T-S tolerance reaches 4 x 10(-4) and 1.1 x 10(-4) for C-16QAM and C-64QAM, respectively, for 1 dB penalty at a symbol error rate of 10(-3).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
[Navarro, Jaime Rodrigo; Pang, Xiaodan; Ozolins, Oskars; Jacobsen, Gunnar] Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Network & Transmiss Lab, S-16425 Kista, Sweden. [Navarro, Jaime Rodrigo] Royal Inst Technol, S-11428 Stockholm, Sweden. [Kakkar, Aditya; Schatz, Richard; Popov, Sergei] Royal Inst Technol, Opt & Photon Div, S-11428 Stockholm, Sweden.: , 2015
Keyword
Carrier phase estimation, circular quadrature amplitude modulation, coherent optical communications, differential decoding
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175483 (URN)10.1109/LPT.2015.2455234 (DOI)000361685200012 ()2-s2.0-84959330772 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20151028

Available from: 2015-10-28 Created: 2015-10-16 Last updated: 2017-05-15Bibliographically approved
16. Phase noise tolerant carrier recovery scheme for 28 Gbaud circular 16QAM
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phase noise tolerant carrier recovery scheme for 28 Gbaud circular 16QAM
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2015 (English)In: European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We propose a novel carrier phase recovery scheme for circular 16QAM coherent transmission systems. Experimental results show low penalties (<1.4 dB) even for linewidths where square 16QAM exhibits irretrievable (above the FEC limit) error floor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015
Keyword
Quadrature amplitude modulation, Carrier phase recovery, Carrier recovery, Coherent transmission systems, Error floor, Optical communication
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186811 (URN)10.1109/ECOC.2015.7341657 (DOI)000377373100048 ()2-s2.0-84957837128 (Scopus ID)9788460817413 (ISBN)
Conference
41st European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2015, 27 September 2015 through 1 October 2015
Note

QC 20160601

Available from: 2016-06-01 Created: 2016-05-13 Last updated: 2017-05-15Bibliographically approved

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