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Phase Noise Tolerant Modulation Formats and DSP Algorithms for Coherent Optical Systems
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO. ACREO Swedish ICT.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5730-9656
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Coherent detection together with multilevel modulation formats has the potential to significantly increase the capacity of existing optical communication systems at no extra cost in signal bandwidth. However, these modulation formats are more susceptible to the impact of different noise sources and distortions as the distance between its constellation points in the complex plane reduces with the modulation index. In this context, digital signal processing (DSP) plays a key role as it allows compensating for the impairments occurring during signal generation, transmission and/or detection relaxing the complexity of the overall system. The transition towards pluggable optical transceivers, offers flexibility for network design/upgrade but sets strict requirements on the power consumption of the DSP thus limiting its complexity. The DSP module complexity however, scales with the modulation order and, in this scenario, low complex yet high performance DSP algorithms are highly desired.

In this thesis, we mainly focus on the impact of laser phase noise arising from the transmitter and local oscillator (LO) lasers in coherent optical communication systems employing high order modulation formats. In these systems, the phase noise of the transmitting and LO lasers translate into phase noise in the received constellation impeding the proper recovery of the transmitted data. In order to increase the system phase noise tolerance, we firstly explore the possibility of re-arranging the constellation points in a circularly shaped mQAM (C-mQAM) constellation shape to exploit its inherent phase noise tolerance. Different low-complex carrier phase recovery (CPR) schemes applicable to these constellations are proposed along with a discussion on its performance and implementation complexity. Secondly, the design guidelines of high performance and low complex CPR schemes for conventional square mQAM constellations are presented. We identify the inherent limitation of the state-of-the-art blind phase search (BPS) carrier phase recovery algorithm which hinders its achievable performance and implementation complexity and present a low complex solution to overcome it. The design guidelines of multi-stage CPR schemes for high order modulation formats, where the BPS algorithm is employed at any of the stages, are also provided and discussed. Finally, the interplay between the received dispersed signal and the LO phase noise is analytically investigated to characterize the origin of the equalization enhanced phase noise phenomena.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , 67 p.
Series
TRITA-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X
Keyword [en]
optical communications, carrier phase recovery, blind phase search, circular quadrature amplitude modulation, CmQAM, coherent optical communications, digital signal processing, carrier phase estimation, equalization enhanced phase noise, EEPN
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
Telecommunication
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207034ISBN: 978-91-7729-424-5 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-207034DiVA: diva2:1095355
Public defence
2017-06-09, Electrum, Sal C, Isafjordsgatan 22, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
EU project ICONE, gr. #608099
Note

QC 20170516

Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-12 Last updated: 2017-05-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Adaptive Boundaries Scheme for Cycle-Slip Mitigation in C-mQAM Coherent Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptive Boundaries Scheme for Cycle-Slip Mitigation in C-mQAM Coherent Systems
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2015 (English)In: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, ISSN 1041-1135, E-ISSN 1941-0174, Vol. 27, no 20, 2154-2157 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We propose a method for cycle-slip mitigation in circular multilevel quadrature amplitude modulation (C-mQAM) coherent optical systems, with constellation rotational asymmetry, based on an adaptive boundaries approach. The impact of cycle-slips in C-mQAM coming from Viterbi-Viterbi algorithm limits the phase noise tolerance. By introducing adaptive boundaries and a differential coding scheme, the ambiguity of asymmetrical rotation of constellation can be effectively removed. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated for a C-16QAM and C-64QAM for various laser linewidths. Results show a noticeable improvement in linewidth symbol duration product (Delta(upsilon) . T-S) tolerance compared with the previous studies on C-mQAM and mQAM constellations. The Delta(upsilon) . T-S tolerance reaches 4 x 10(-4) and 1.1 x 10(-4) for C-16QAM and C-64QAM, respectively, for 1 dB penalty at a symbol error rate of 10(-3).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
[Navarro, Jaime Rodrigo; Pang, Xiaodan; Ozolins, Oskars; Jacobsen, Gunnar] Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Network & Transmiss Lab, S-16425 Kista, Sweden. [Navarro, Jaime Rodrigo] Royal Inst Technol, S-11428 Stockholm, Sweden. [Kakkar, Aditya; Schatz, Richard; Popov, Sergei] Royal Inst Technol, Opt & Photon Div, S-11428 Stockholm, Sweden.: , 2015
Keyword
Carrier phase estimation, circular quadrature amplitude modulation, coherent optical communications, differential decoding
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175483 (URN)10.1109/LPT.2015.2455234 (DOI)000361685200012 ()2-s2.0-84959330772 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20151028

Available from: 2015-10-28 Created: 2015-10-16 Last updated: 2017-05-15Bibliographically approved
2. Carrier Phase Recovery Algorithms for Coherent Optical Circular mQAM Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carrier Phase Recovery Algorithms for Coherent Optical Circular mQAM Systems
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Lightwave Technology, ISSN 0733-8724, E-ISSN 1558-2213, Vol. 34, no 11, 2717-2723 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The phase noise tolerance of circular multilevel quadrature amplitude modulation (C-mQAM) constellations employing different carrier phase recovery (CPR) algorithms is studied. A differential decoding scheme and a bit mapping for this type of constellations are proposed. A novel CPR scheme for C-mQAM constellations is also presented. The particular distribution of the constellation points in a C-mQAM signal is exploited to reduce the required Nth power for the removal of the modulation component by a factor of two. Hence, the computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is drastically reduced. The combined linewidth symbol duration product (Delta nu T-s) tolerance of different CPR algorithms for C-mQAM constellations is studied and compared with the proposed CPR scheme. The results are analyzed at 3.8e-3 and 1e-2 bit error rate forward error correction limits. The proposed CPR scheme achieves similar Delta nu Ts tolerance compared to single stage BPS algorithm while its computational complexity is reduced by group factors of 27.2 vertical bar 32.3, and 30.5 vertical bar 32.6 (in the form of multipliers vertical bar adders) for C-16QAM and C-64QAM, respectively.

Keyword
Carrier phase recovery (CPR), circular quadrature amplitude modulation (C-mQAM), coherent detection, differential decoding, phase noise
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-190512 (URN)10.1109/JLT.2016.2545339 (DOI)000379751000015 ()2-s2.0-84971351207 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160818

Available from: 2016-08-18 Created: 2016-08-12 Last updated: 2017-05-15Bibliographically approved
3. Two-Stage n-PSK Partitioning Carrier Phase Recovery Scheme for Circular mQAM Coherent Optical Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Two-Stage n-PSK Partitioning Carrier Phase Recovery Scheme for Circular mQAM Coherent Optical Systems
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2016 (English)In: PHOTONICS, ISSN 2304-6732, Vol. 3, no 2, 37Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel two-stage n-PSK partitioning carrier phase recovery (CPR) scheme for circular multilevel quadrature amplitude modulation (C-mQAM) constellations is presented. The first stage of the algorithm provides an initial rough estimation of the received constellation, which is utilized in the second stage for CPR. The performance of the proposed algorithm is studied through extensive simulations at the forward error correction bit error rate targets of 3.8 x 10(-3) and 1 x 10(-2) and is compared with different CPR algorithms. A significant improvement in the combined linewidth symbol duration product (Delta vT(s)) tolerance is achieved compared to the single-stage n-PSK partitioning scheme. Superior performance in the Delta vT(s) tolerance compared to the blind phase search algorithm is also reported. The relative improvements with respect to other CPR schemes are also validated experimentally for a 28-Gbaud C-16QAM back-to-back transmission system. The computational complexity of the proposed CPR scheme is studied, and reduction factors of 24.5 broken vertical bar 30.1 and 59.1 broken vertical bar 63.3 are achieved for C-16QAM and C-64QAM, respectively, compared to single-stage BPS in the form of multipliers broken vertical bar adders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2016
Keyword
carrier phase recovery (CPR), circular quadrature amplitude modulation (C-mQAM), coherent detection, phase noise
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-192766 (URN)10.3390/photonics3020037 (DOI)000381860000026 ()
Note

QC 20160926

Available from: 2016-09-26 Created: 2016-09-20 Last updated: 2017-05-15Bibliographically approved
4. Phase noise tolerant carrier recovery scheme for 28 Gbaud circular 16QAM
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phase noise tolerant carrier recovery scheme for 28 Gbaud circular 16QAM
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2015 (English)In: European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We propose a novel carrier phase recovery scheme for circular 16QAM coherent transmission systems. Experimental results show low penalties (<1.4 dB) even for linewidths where square 16QAM exhibits irretrievable (above the FEC limit) error floor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015
Keyword
Quadrature amplitude modulation, Carrier phase recovery, Carrier recovery, Coherent transmission systems, Error floor, Optical communication
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186811 (URN)10.1109/ECOC.2015.7341657 (DOI)000377373100048 ()2-s2.0-84957837128 (Scopus ID)9788460817413 (ISBN)
Conference
41st European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2015, 27 September 2015 through 1 October 2015
Note

QC 20160601

Available from: 2016-06-01 Created: 2016-05-13 Last updated: 2017-05-15Bibliographically approved
5. Blind  phase  search  with  angular  quantization  noise mitigation for efficient carrier phase recovery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blind  phase  search  with  angular  quantization  noise mitigation for efficient carrier phase recovery
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(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207114 (URN)
Note

QC 20170516

Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2017-05-16Bibliographically approved
6. High Performance and Low Complexity Carrier Phase Recovery Schemes for 64-QAM Coherent Optical Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High Performance and Low Complexity Carrier Phase Recovery Schemes for 64-QAM Coherent Optical Systems
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207115 (URN)10.1364/OFC.2017.W2A.53 (DOI)000403405800605 ()2-s2.0-85019942945 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Optical Fiber Conference OFC
Note

QC 20170516

Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2017-07-11Bibliographically approved
7. Design of Multi-Stage Carrier Phase Recovery Schemes for  high  order  Coherent  Optical  mQAM  Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of Multi-Stage Carrier Phase Recovery Schemes for  high  order  Coherent  Optical  mQAM  Systems
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(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207116 (URN)
Note

QC 20170516

Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2017-05-16Bibliographically approved
8. Comprehensive study of equalization-enhanced phase noise in coherent optical systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comprehensive study of equalization-enhanced phase noise in coherent optical systems
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Lightwave Technology, ISSN 0733-8724, E-ISSN 1558-2213, Vol. 33, no 23, 4834-4841 p., 7299252Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A thorough analysis of equalization-enhanced phase noise (EEPN) and its impact on the coherent optical system is presented. We show with a time-domain analysis that EEPN is caused due to the interference of multiple delayed versions of the dispersed signal, generated by intermixing of the received dispersed signal, and the noise side bands of the local oscillator (LO) in the photodetectors. We derive statistical properties such as the mean, variance, and error vector magnitude of the received signal influenced with EEPN. We show that in coherent optical systems utilizing electronic dispersion compensation, this noise corresponds to multipath fading in wireless communication systems. Closed-form expressions of necessary LO linewidth and/or mitigation bandwidth for a general system configuration and specified OSNR penalty are given. The expressions for system design parameters, validated with system simulations, show that higher order modulation formats, such as 16-quadrature amplitude modulation and beyond, put stringent demands on the LO linewidth unless a mitigation technique is used.

Keyword
Coherent receivers, digital signal processing (DSP), electronic dispersion compensation (EDC), equalization-enhanced phase noise (EEPN), laser linewidth, multipath fading, optical communication, quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), Amplitude modulation, Dispersion compensation, Linewidth, Optical systems, Phase noise, Quadrature amplitude modulation, Signal processing, Signal receivers, Time domain analysis, Wireless telecommunication systems, Electronic dispersion compensation, Equalization enhanced phase noises (EEPN), Laser line-width, Quadrature-amplitude modulations (QAM), Modulation
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186809 (URN)10.1109/JLT.2015.2491363 (DOI)2-s2.0-84960120889 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160527

Available from: 2016-05-27 Created: 2016-05-13 Last updated: 2017-05-15Bibliographically approved
9. Impact of local oscillator frequency noise on coherent optical systems with electronic dispersion compensation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of local oscillator frequency noise on coherent optical systems with electronic dispersion compensation
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2015 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 23, no 9, 11221-11226 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A theoretical investigation of the equalization-enhanced phase noise (EEPN) and its mitigation is presented. We show with a frequency domain analysis that the EEPN results from the non-linear inter-mixing between the sidebands of the dispersed signal and the noise sidebands of the local oscillator. It is further shown and validated with system simulations that the transmission penalty is mainly due to the slow optical frequency fluctuations of the local oscillator. Hence, elimination of the frequency noise below a certain cut-off frequency significantly reduces the transmission penalty, even when frequency noise would otherwise cause an error floor. The required cut-off frequency increases linearly with the white frequency noise level and hence the linewidth of the local oscillator laser, but is virtually independent of the symbol rate and the accumulated dispersion.

Keyword
Enhanced Phase Noise, RF Pilot, Equalization, Transmission, EEPN
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-169270 (URN)10.1364/OE.23.011221 (DOI)000354337700035 ()25969218 (PubMedID)
Note

QC 20150615

Available from: 2015-06-15 Created: 2015-06-12 Last updated: 2017-05-15Bibliographically approved
10. A path to use large linewidth LO in 28 Gbd 16-QAM metro links
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A path to use large linewidth LO in 28 Gbd 16-QAM metro links
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2015 (English)In: European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC, IEEE , 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We experimentally investigate the possibility to mitigate local oscillator induced Equalization Enhanced Phase Noise penalty. The results pave the way for the use of even 10 MHz linewidth local oscillator lasers in 28 Gbd 16-QAM metro links.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2015
Keyword
Phase noise, Quadrature amplitude modulation, Equalization enhanced phase noise, Local oscillators, Optical communication
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186812 (URN)10.1109/ECOC.2015.7341948 (DOI)000377373100339 ()2-s2.0-84957827876 (Scopus ID)9788460817413 (ISBN)
Conference
41st European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2015, 27 September 2015 through 1 October 2015
Note

QC 20160527

Available from: 2016-05-27 Created: 2016-05-13 Last updated: 2017-05-15Bibliographically approved
11. Mitigation of EEPN in Coherent Optical Systems With Low-Speed Digital Coherence Enhancement
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mitigation of EEPN in Coherent Optical Systems With Low-Speed Digital Coherence Enhancement
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2015 (English)In: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, ISSN 1041-1135, E-ISSN 1941-0174, Vol. 27, no 18, 1942-1945 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A method for mitigating local oscillator (LO) phase noise-induced impairment, also known as equalization-enhanced phase noise, in coherent optical systems is discussed. The method is suitable for real-time implementation and requires hardware with a bandwidth much lower than the signal baud rate, even for a system utilizing conventional semiconductor laser as LO. We evaluate the required parameters like interpolation technique, electrical signal-to-noise ratio at digital coherence enhancement (DCE) front end, for long haul transmission links having quadrature phase shift keying and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation formats. We show that the method can be implemented using a low-speed DCE front end and a simple digital linear interpolator with small (<1 dB) implementation penalty even in cases that would otherwise result in error floor.

Keyword
Coherent receivers, quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), equalization-enhanced phase noise, laser linewidth, optical communication
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173759 (URN)10.1109/LPT.2015.2447839 (DOI)000360375000013 ()2-s2.0-84940376664 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150923

Available from: 2015-09-23 Created: 2015-09-18 Last updated: 2017-05-15Bibliographically approved
12. Overcoming EEPN in Coherent Transmission Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overcoming EEPN in Coherent Transmission Systems
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2016 (English)In: 2016 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS (CLEO), IEEE conference proceedings, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We for the first time experimentally demonstrate a simple technique to overcome EEPN. Performance recovery from above FEC to <1 dB penalty for 28 Gbd 16-QAM over 520 km with high LO linewidth is achieved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2016
Series
Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, ISSN 2160-9020
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-201284 (URN)000391286402479 ()2-s2.0-85010682957 (Scopus ID)978-1-9435-8011-8 (ISBN)
Conference
Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), JUN 05-10, 2016, San Jose, CA
Note

QC 20170215

Available from: 2017-02-15 Created: 2017-02-15 Last updated: 2017-05-15Bibliographically approved
13. Equalization Enhanced Phase Noise in Coherent Optical Systems with Digital Pre- and Post-Processing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Equalization Enhanced Phase Noise in Coherent Optical Systems with Digital Pre- and Post-Processing
Show others...
2016 (English)In: PHOTONICS, ISSN 2304-6732, Vol. 3, no 2, 12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present an extensive study of equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN) in coherent optical system for all practical electronic dispersion compensation configurations. It is shown that there are only eight practicable all-electronic impairment mitigation configurations. The non-linear and time variant analysis reveals that the existence and the cause of EEPN depend on the digital signal processing (DSP) schemes. There are three schemes that in principle do not cause EEPN. Analysis further reveals the statistical equivalence of the remaining five system configurations resulting in EEPN. In three of them, EEPN is due to phase noise of the transmitting laser, while in the remaining two, EEPN is caused by the local oscillator. We provide a simple look-up table for the system designer to make an informative decision regarding practicable configuration choice and design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2016
Keyword
coherent receivers, quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), equalization-enhanced phase noise (EEPN), laser linewidth, optical communication, digital signal processing (DSP), electronic dispersion compensation (EDC)
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-192765 (URN)10.3390/photonics3020012 (DOI)000381860000001 ()
Note

QC 20160926

Available from: 2016-09-26 Created: 2016-09-20 Last updated: 2017-05-15Bibliographically approved
14. Design of coherent optical systems impaired by EEPN
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of coherent optical systems impaired by EEPN
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2016 (English)In: 2016 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition, OFC 2016, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present experimental validation of novel analytical expressions essential for the design of coherent optical systems impaired by EEPN. These expressions enable a simple and accurate EEPN analysis for any system specification. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016
Keyword
Optical fibers, Specifications, Analytical expressions, Coherent optical systems, Experimental validations, System specification, Optical fiber communication
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-194977 (URN)000382938100307 ()2-s2.0-84986208236 (Scopus ID)9781943580071 (ISBN)
Conference
2016 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition, OFC 2016, 20 March 2016 through 24 March 2016
Note

QC 20161110

Available from: 2016-11-10 Created: 2016-11-01 Last updated: 2017-05-15Bibliographically approved
15. Laser Frequency Noise in Coherent Optical Systems: Spectral Regimes and Impairments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laser Frequency Noise in Coherent Optical Systems: Spectral Regimes and Impairments
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2017 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 844Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Coherent communication networks are based on the ability to use multiple dimensions of the lightwave together with electrical domain compensation of transmission impairments. Electrical-domain dispersion compensation (EDC) provides many advantages such as network flexibility and enhanced fiber nonlinearity tolerance, but makes the system more susceptible to laser frequency noise (FN), e.g. to the local oscillator FN in systems with post-reception EDC. Although this problem has been extensively studied, statistically, for links assuming lasers with white-FN, many questions remain unanswered. Particularly, the influence of a realistic non-white FN-spectrum due to e.g., the presence of 1/f-flicker and carrier induced noise remains elusive and a statistical analysis becomes insufficient. Here we provide an experimentally validated theory for coherent optical links with lasers having general non-white FN-spectrum and EDC. The fundamental reason of the increased susceptibility is shown to be FN-induced symbol displacement that causes timing jitter and/or inter/intra symbol interference. We establish that different regimes of the laser FN-spectrum cause a different set of impairments. The influence of the impairments due to some regimes can be reduced by optimizing the corresponding mitigation algorithms, while other regimes cause irretrievable impairments. Theoretical boundaries of these regimes and corresponding criteria applicable to system/laser design are provided.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2017
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-206683 (URN)10.1038/s41598-017-00868-4 (DOI)000399186000008 ()28404988 (PubMedID)
Note

QC 20170510

Available from: 2017-05-10 Created: 2017-05-10 Last updated: 2017-05-15Bibliographically approved
16. Influence of Lasers with Non-White Frequency Noise on the Design of Coherent Optical Links
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Lasers with Non-White Frequency Noise on the Design of Coherent Optical Links
Show others...
2017 (English)Conference paper, Poster (Refereed)
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207118 (URN)
Conference
Optical Fiber Conference OFC
Note

QC 20170516

Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2017-05-16Bibliographically approved

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