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Towards Affordable Provisioning Strategies for Local Mobile Services in Dense Urban Areas: A Techno-economic Study
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). (RS Lab)
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The future mobile communication networks are expected to cope with growing local usage patterns especially in dense urban areas at more affordable deployment and operation expenses. Beyond leveraging small cell architectures and advanced radio access technologies; more radio spectrum are expected to be required to achieve the desired techno-economic targets. Therefore, the research activity has been directed towards discussing the benefits and needs for more flexible and local spectrum authorization schemes. This thesis work is meant to be a contribution to this ongoing discussion from a techno-economic perspective.

 

In chapter three, the engineering value of the different flexible authorization options are evaluated from the perspective of established mobile network operators using the opportunity cost approach. The main results in chapter three indicate the economic incentives to deploy more small cells based on flexible spectrum authorization options are subject to the potential saving in the deployment and operation costs. Nonetheless; high engineering value can be anticipated when the density of small cells is equal or larger than the active mobile subscribers’ density.

 

While in chapter four, the possible local business models around different flexible authorization options are investigated from the perspective of emerging actors with limited or ’no’ licensed spectrum resources. In this context, dependent or independent local business can be identified according to surrounding spectrum regulations. On possible independent local business models for those emerging actors is to exploit the different flexible spectrum authorization options to provision tailored local mobile services. Other viable dependent local business models rest with the possibility to enter into different cooperation agreements to deploy and operate dedicated local mobile infrastructure on behalf established mobile network operators.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , 61 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT, 2017:07
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-206950ISBN: 978-91-7729-319-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-206950DiVA: diva2:1094440
Presentation
2017-06-07, Sal C, Kistagången 16, Kista, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20170510

Available from: 2017-05-11 Created: 2017-05-10 Last updated: 2017-05-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Device-to-device communications and small cells: Enabling spectrum reuse for dense networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Device-to-device communications and small cells: Enabling spectrum reuse for dense networks
Show others...
2014 (English)In: IEEE wireless communications, ISSN 1536-1284, E-ISSN 1558-0687, Vol. 21, no 4, 98-105 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the evolution of communication networks, there has always been a need to increase the capacity to cope with the continuous growing demand for data transmission. However, with the arrival of the Internet-of-Things and the commoditization of broadband access through smartphones, tablets, smart-watches, and all types of connecting devices, future networks must be capable of providing higher bandwidth and Quality of Experience, as wellas operating in dense networks with a massive number of simultaneous connections. This high number of connections will be very heterogeneous, spanning from highly-demanding data rate applications to low-complexity and high energy-efficient Machine-to-Machine communications. In such a dense and complex scenario, a more flexible use of spectrum resources is deemed to be the way to meet the growing requirements for data transmission. In particular, this article focuses on Device-to-Device communications and small cell deployments as emerging facilitators of such a demanding and heterogeneous scenario. The pros and cons of both complementary strategies are identified from both a technical and a business point of view, and main standardization activities are discussed. The aim of this article is to identify and describe open challenges and to inspire new areas for research that make viable the next generation of dense networks.

Keyword
Automation, Complex networks, Data communication systems, Broadband access, Data rate applications, Device-to-Device communications, Energy efficient, Future networks, Internet-of-Things, Machine-to-machine communications, Quality of experience (QoE)
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-154395 (URN)10.1109/MWC.2014.6882301 (DOI)000341629400014 ()2-s2.0-84906816725 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-318306; FP7-607774Wireless@kth
Note

QC 20141021

Available from: 2014-10-21 Created: 2014-10-20 Last updated: 2017-05-10Bibliographically approved
2. Techno-economics of Green Mobile Networks Considering Backhauling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Techno-economics of Green Mobile Networks Considering Backhauling
2014 (English)In: European Wireless 2014; 20th European Wireless Conference; Proceedings of, Barcelona: VDE Verlag GmbH, 2014, 1-6 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we consider a comparative analysis of different deployment solutions in terms of total cost of ownership (TCO) and impact of energy efficiency as a cost parameter, i.e. mobile operator's electric bill. Different deployment options for the wireless segment of the network are considered: macro only versus heterogeneous networks with femto cells to support indoor traffic demand. In addition to the wireless segment different technologies for the backhauling segment are also considered: microwave versus fiber (10G-PON). Considering different user traffic intensities in an urban area and different environments such as business and residential areas, the impact of energy consumption on the TCO has been analyzed. The scope of the paper is extended to compare different backhaul technologies considering the annual increase in the traffic demand up to year 2020. The obtained results indicate that the impact of electric bill becomes more significant over the TCO especially after year 2018. Moreover, the heterogeneous deployment strategy utilizing indoor femto-cells achieves significant savings in terms of electric bill and TCO compared to the macro only solution. However, the saving ratio varies according to the adopted backhauling technology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Barcelona: VDE Verlag GmbH, 2014
Keyword
Backhaul, Capacity, Cost, Femtocell, Fiber optic, LTE, Macrocell, Microwave, Power consumption
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-159334 (URN)2-s2.0-84916939858 (Scopus ID)978-3-8007-3621-8 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE, European Wireless Conference, Barcelona, 14-16 May 2014
Projects
5GreeN
Funder
Wireless@kth
Note

QC 20150210

Available from: 2015-01-29 Created: 2015-01-29 Last updated: 2017-05-10Bibliographically approved
3. On the Engineering Value of Spectrum in Dense Mobile Network Deployment Scenarios
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Engineering Value of Spectrum in Dense Mobile Network Deployment Scenarios
2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

the continuing growth in the mobile data traffic magnifies the challenges for the design and deployment of scalable high-capacity mobile networks that can meet the future demand at reasonable cost levels. In order to meet the future traffic demand, an operator should invest on both infrastructure, i.e. densification of base stations, and more radio spectrum. Knowing the effectiveness of each element is thus of utmost importance for minimizing the investment cost. In this paper, we study the economic substitutability between spectrum and densification. For this, we measure the engineering value of spectrum, which refers to the potential saving in the total cost of ownership (TCO) as result of acquiring additional spectrum resources. Two countries are considered to represent different market situations: India with dense population and high spectrum price and Sweden with moderate population density and low spectrum fee. Numerical results indicate that additional amount of spectrum substantially relieves the need for densifying radio base stations, particularly for providing high user data rate in dense India. Nonetheless, the engineering value of spectrum is low in India (i.e. spectrum acquisition has less cost benefit) under the high spectrum price of today, whereas spectrum is instrumental in lowering the total cost of ownership in Sweden. Our finding highlights the importance of affordable and sufficient spectrum resources for future mobile broadband provisioning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2015
Series
IEEE International Symposium on Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN)
Keyword
economic value of spectrum, mobile broadband, MNO, Total Cost of ownership (TCO)
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-185912 (URN)10.1109/DySPAN.2015.7343922 (DOI)000380544200042 ()2-s2.0-84960403130 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2015 IEEE International Symposium on Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN),29 Sep - 02 Oct 2015,Stockholm, Sweden
Projects
METIS-II project
Funder
Wireless@kth
Note

QC 20160429

Available from: 2016-04-28 Created: 2016-04-28 Last updated: 2017-05-10Bibliographically approved
4. Impact of the flexible spectrum aggregation schemes on the cost of future mobile network
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of the flexible spectrum aggregation schemes on the cost of future mobile network
2015 (English)In: 2015 22nd International Conference on Telecommunications, ICT 2015, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, 96-101 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Nowadays the spectrum regulations landscape is changing towards more flexible spectrum management schemes, such trends are expected to make additional spectrum resources available and lowers the spectrum access hurdles. In this paper, different spectrum aggregation scenarios have been compared focusing on the tradeoff between the total cost of ownership and the targeted QoS under different market conditions. The main finding in this study thereof indicates that the addition of more spectrum resources will lead to an overall reduction in the total cost of ownership (TCO) as long as the spectrum price remains small compared to the cost of the network infrastructure. Moreover, schemes such as LSA and secondary access will enable operators who have insufficient licensed spectrum resource to expand their mobile network infrastructure especially in hotspots with high subscribers demand in a cost-effective way. In this regard, the harmonization of spectrum use for LSA and TVWS across multiple countries stands as a key requirement for the reduction of the production cost of equipment and hence, the creation of an economy of scale considering both of the network equipment (i.e. radio base station) and end-subscriber devices. © 2015 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2015
Keyword
Cost, Local Operators (LO), LSA and TVWS, MNO, Power Consumption, Spectrum Aggregation, Balloons, Base stations, Cost effectiveness, Costs, Electric power utilization, Mobile telecommunication systems, Wireless networks, Flexible spectrum management, Local operators, Network infrastructure, Spectrum regulation, Total cost of ownership, Cost reduction
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-174779 (URN)10.1109/ICT.2015.7124664 (DOI)000380395800018 ()2-s2.0-84938786924 (Scopus ID)9781479980789 (ISBN)
Conference
2015 22nd International Conference on Telecommunications, ICT 2015, 27 April 2015 through 29 April 2015
Note

QC 20151208

Available from: 2015-12-08 Created: 2015-10-07 Last updated: 2017-05-10Bibliographically approved
5. Study on the effects of backhual solutions on indoor mobile deployment "macrocell vs. femtocell"
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study on the effects of backhual solutions on indoor mobile deployment "macrocell vs. femtocell"
2013 (English)In: 2013 IEEE 24th International Symposium on Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, 2444-2448 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The deployment of low cost and low power base stations has been recognized in recent years as a promising cost-efficient solution and energy-efficient strategy. In this paper the femtocell and macrocell deployment options have been compared in the context of indoor mobile broadband deployment, with focus on the effect of different backhauling solutions in power consumption and the total deployment cost. This study has been based on the deployment of mobile broadband services within an area of one square kilometers in a new densely populated business district where the different user demands, spectrum bandwidths, backhaul technologies and radio access technologies are taken into account. Moreover, various deployment scenarios reflecting the business perspectives of mobile operators have been looked into as well. The main findings reached indicate that backhaul solutions contribute differently to cost and power consumption depending on the employed deployment strategy. However, contributions to the total power consumption and to the CapEx and OpEx elements of the total deployment cost elements turned to be more significant in the case of femtocell deployment scenarios than in the case of macrocell ones. It is worthy of notice that the femtocell deployment is more cost-efficient, especially in high demand situation when new macro sites are needed to be deployed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2013
Keyword
Backhaul, Capacity, Cost, Femtocell, Fiber optic, HSPA, LTE, Macrocell, Microwave, Power consumption
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133320 (URN)10.1109/PIMRC.2013.6666556 (DOI)000346481202098 ()2-s2.0-84893301072 (Scopus ID)978-146736235-1 (ISBN)
Conference
2013 IEEE 24th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC 2013; London; United Kingdom; 8 September 2013 through 11 September 2013
Projects
Towards Green 5G Mobile Networks (5GrEEn)
Funder
Wireless@kth
Note

QC 20140320

Available from: 2013-11-08 Created: 2013-10-30 Last updated: 2017-05-10Bibliographically approved
6. Interplay Between Cost,Capacity and Power Consumption in Heterogeneous Mobile Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interplay Between Cost,Capacity and Power Consumption in Heterogeneous Mobile Networks
2014 (English)In: 2014 21st International Conference on Telecommunications, ICT 2014, Lisbon: IEEE Press, 2014, , 5 p.98-102 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Mobile operators nowadays tend to deploy dense heterogeneous layers of 3G and 4G networks in outdoor and indoor environments by adding more macrocells and small cells (e.g. microcells, picocells and femtocells) in response to the increasing demand for coverage and capacity. Another main driver and enabler behind this tendency is the phenomenon that around 80% of power consumption in mobile communication networks stems from the radio base stations. This situation makes mobile operators opt for the use of lowpower radio base stations to provide better coverage, capacity and an environmentally-friendly operation. In this paper the interplay between the deployment costs, targeted QoS and power consumptions have been studied considering two deployment options for the provisioning of the required mobile broadband coverage and capacity; namely the heterogeneous network (HetNet) option versus the homogenous macrocell deployment option. The main findings indicate that, the perceived saving in the total cost of ownership (TCO) resulting from offloading percentage of network traffic to indoor smallcell, in the case of HetNet, is bounded by the mobile subscriber density per area, their usage patterns, the adopted backhaul solution and the used spectrum resources. In general, a quite paying cost and power saving can be achieved by the heterogonous deployment solution for scenarios with high demand levels especially when there is a need to use the spectrum resources more efficiently.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lisbon: IEEE Press, 2014. 5 p.
Keyword
Backhaul, Cost, Capacity, Femtocell, fiber optic, LTE, Microwave, Macrocell, Power Consumption
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-159335 (URN)10.1109/ICT.2014.6845088 (DOI)000355276500020 ()2-s2.0-84904425650 (Scopus ID)978-147995141-3 (ISBN)
Conference
2014 21st International Conference on Telecommunications (ICT),4 - 7 May 2014, Lisbon, Portugal
Projects
5GrEEn project
Funder
Wireless@kth
Note

QC 20150210

Available from: 2015-01-29 Created: 2015-01-29 Last updated: 2017-05-10Bibliographically approved
7. Evaluation of Spectrum Access Options for Indoor Mobile Network Deployment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Spectrum Access Options for Indoor Mobile Network Deployment
2013 (English)In: 2013 IEEE 24th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC Workshops), IEEE , 2013, 138-142 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The investments in indoor mobile networks are highly related to the spectrum availability and its associated authorization options. The aim of this paper is to discuss the differences in the spectrum demand taking into consideration both wide and local area network deployment requirements and the kind of actor that provides the indoor wireless access. The analysis covers different authorizations options namely licensed, unlicensed, licensed shared access (LSA) and secondary access. A quantitative approach is used to analyze the differences between macrocell and femtocell deployments focusing on deployment cost and spectrum demand. This is complemented by a qualitative study to explore and discuss the strategic business decisions of different actors in view of the available spectrum bands and spectrum authorization options. The main conclusions from this study are; spectrum has more value in macrocell deployment scenarios than in femtocell ones. More spectrum in macrocell deployment scenarios means that operators can deploy less number of new sites and exploit previous infrastructure investments. Femtocell networks are often coverage limited which allows for frequency re-use. As a consequence, the value of spectrum is not the same for mobile network operators (MNOs) and for local network operator (LNOs). MNOs are traditionally confined to macrocell deployment strategies which entail the exclusive usage of licensed bands. While, the use of licensed spectrum by LNOs may incur more cost than the cost of infrastructure deployment. This explains why the use of unlicensed bands is lucrative and viable for LNOs. Furthermore, the LSA scheme may or could soon become an enabler for LNO's business due to the prevailing technical, regulation and policies developments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2013
Keyword
Business models, Cost and capacity analysis, Licensed and unlicensed spectrum, Mobile broadband, Outdoor and indoor network deployment, Spectrum access
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133328 (URN)10.1109/PIMRCW.2013.6707852 (DOI)2-s2.0-84893562889 (Scopus ID)978-147990122-7 (ISBN)
Conference
2013 IEEE 24th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC Workshops 2013; London; United Kingdom; 8 September 2013 through 9 September 2013
Projects
Mobile and wireless communications Enablers for Twenty-twenty (2020) Information Society (METIS)
Funder
Wireless@kthEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 317669
Note

QC 20140320

Available from: 2013-11-08 Created: 2013-10-30 Last updated: 2017-05-10Bibliographically approved
8. Investment strategies for different actors in indoor mobile market: "in view of the emerging spectrum authorization schemes"
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investment strategies for different actors in indoor mobile market: "in view of the emerging spectrum authorization schemes"
2013 (English)In: 24th European Regional Conference of the International Telecommunication Society, Florence, Italy, 20-23 October 2013, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The regulatory landscape is changing towards more flexible spectrum management schemes. Such schemes are expected to make additional spectrum resources available and lower the spectrum access barriers. Emerging spectrum authorization schemes such as secondary access (TV White Space) and Licensed Shared Access (LSA) are expected to open doors for new actors rather than traditional MNOs to access licensed spectrum resources at reasonable costs. These schemes will allow actors such as Facility Owners (FO), Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNO) and Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to invest in indoor mobile network infrastructure. These actors can act as Local Network Operators (LNO) and build their business models around provisioning of mobile services in locations where there seems to be a hole or lack of service coverage in a particular area within the mobile network operators (MNOs) service footprint. This paper highlights the differences between indoor deployment and outdoor deployment in the light of the available spectrum bands to be used and the possible business models for MNOs and LNOs. In short, the possible investment strategies for provisioning indoor mobile services vary between MNOs and LNOs cases due to economic and regulatory aspects surrounding them. The main finding in this study indicates that the willingness of MNOs to invest in dedicated indoor solutions is driven by the balance between the potential revenues and the deployment cost. Moreover MNOs have more spectrum and investment options compared to LNOs who must bond their investment strategies to the available spectrum resources (i.e. the regulations of spectrum access).

Keyword
Business models, Cost and capacity analysis, Licensed and unlicensed spectrum, Outdoor and indoor network deployment, Mobile broadband, Spectrum access
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133329 (URN)
Conference
24th European Regional Conference of the International Telecommunication Society, Florence, Italy, 20-23 October 2013
Projects
Mobile and wireless communications Enablers for Twenty-twenty (2020) Information Society (METIS)
Funder
Wireless@kthEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Note

QC 20140603

Available from: 2013-11-08 Created: 2013-10-30 Last updated: 2017-05-10Bibliographically approved

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