Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
A Comparison of On-Engine Surge Detection Algorithms Using Knock Accelerometers
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.). Competence Center for Gas Exchange. (CCGEx / Compressor off-Design)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4937-8915
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9483-7992
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. Competence Center for Gas Exchange. (CCGEx - Compressor off-Design)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7330-6965
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

On-engine surge detection could help in reducing the safety margintowards surge, thus allowing higher boosting pressures and ultimatelylow-end torque. In this paper, experimental data from a truckturbocharger compressor mounted on the engine is investigated. Ashort period of compressor surge is provoked through a sudden, largedrop in engine load. The compressor housing is equipped with knockaccelerometers. Different signal treatments are evaluated for theirsuitability with respect to on-engine surge detection: the signal rootmean square, the power spectral density in the surge frequency band,the recently proposed Hurst exponent, and a closely related conceptoptimized to detect changes in the underlying scaling behavior of thesignal. For validation purposes, a visual observation of the air filtervibrations are also used to diagnose surge. The four signal treatmentsare compared with respect to their reliability as surge indicator andthe time delay between surge onset and indication. Results show thatthe signal power in the surge frequency band has reasonably goodproperties as surge indicator. The normal Hurst exponent isproblematic, since periodic vibrations from engine firing dominatethe scaling behavior. Root mean square and the above mentionedscaling exponent do not measure vibrations caused by surge directly,but rather the reduction in housing vibrations due to the engine loaddrop; nevertheless, it was found to be possible to design an indicatorthat gives good results based on the change in scaling behavior.

National Category
Energy Engineering Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology; Energy Technology; Machine Design
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-206945OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-206945DiVA: diva2:1094421
Note

QC 20170510

Available from: 2017-05-09 Created: 2017-05-09 Last updated: 2017-05-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. On Stability and Surge in Turbocharger Compressors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Stability and Surge in Turbocharger Compressors
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Turbochargers are used on many automotive internal combustion engines to increase power density. The broad operating range of the engine also requires a wide range of the turbocharger compressor. At low mass flows, however, turbo compressor operation becomes unstable and eventually enters surge. Surge is characterized by large oscillations in mass flow and pressure. Due to the associated noise, control problems, and possibility of mechanical component damage, this has to be avoided.

Different indicators exist to classify compressor operation as stable or unstable on a gas stand. They are based on pressure oscillations, speed oscillations, or inlet temperature increase. In this thesis, a new stability indicator is proposed based on the Hurst exponent of the pressure signal. The Hurst exponent is a number between zero and one that describes what kind of long-term correlations are present in a time series.

Data from three cold gas stand experiments are analyzed using this criterion. Results show that the Hurst exponent of the compressor outlet pressure signal has good characteristics. Stable operation is being indicated by values larger than 0.5. As compressor operation moves towards the surge line, the Hurst exponent decreases towards zero. An additional distinction between the long-term correlations of small and large amplitude fluctuations by means of higher order Hurst exponents can be used as an early warning indicator.

Further tests using compressor housing accelerometers show that the Hurst exponent is not a good choice for real-time surge detection on the engine. Reasons are the long required sampling time compared to competing methods, and the fact that other periodically repeating oscillations lead to Hurst exponents close to zero independent of compressor operation.

Abstract [sv]

Turboladdare används ofta på förbränningsmotorer för att öka motorns effekttäthet. Motorns breda driftområde ställer krav på ett brett driftområde för turboladdarens kompressor. Vid låga massflöden blir kompressordriften dock mindre stabil, och surge kan uppträda. Surge innebär stora oscillationer i tryck och massflöde genom kompressorn. På grund av oljud, reglerproblem och risken för mekaniska skador vill man undvika surge.

Det finns indikatorer för att bedöma kompressorns stabilitet på ett gas stand. Indikatorerna är baserade på tryckoscillationer, varvtalsoscillationer, eller temperaturökning i gasen i kompressorinloppet. I denna avhandling presenteras en ny indikator baserad på Hurst-exponenten, beräknad på trycksignalen. Hurst-exponenten är ett tal mellan noll och ett som beskriver vilka typer av långtidskorrelationer det finns i signalen.

Mätningar från tre gas-stand-experiment har analyserats på detta sätt. Analyserna visar att Hurst-exponenten baserad på kompressorutloppstrycket fungerar bra som som surgeindikator. Stabil drift av kompressorn indikeras av att Hurst-exponenten är större än 0.5. När kompressordriftpunkten närmar sig surgelinjen faller Hurst-exponenten mot noll. En distinktion mellan oscillationer med små och stora amplituder kan används för att få en tidig varning.

Analyser av vibrationsmätningar på kompressorhuset vid motorapplikation visar att Hurst-exponenten inte är lämplig som realtidsindikator på en motor. Detta kommer sig dels av att data behöver samlas in under en längre tid än med andra tänkbara indikatorer, dels av att andra periodiska oscillationer i signalen kopplade till motorns naturliga beteende leder till Hurst-exponenter nära noll även vid stabil kompressordrift.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 109 p.
Series
TRITA-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179
Keyword
Turbocharger, Radial Compressor, Stability, Surge, Hurst exponent, Fractals
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Machine Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-206737 (URN)978-91-7729-378-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-06-02, D1, Lindstedtsvägen 17, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
CCGEx - Compressor off-Design
Note

QC 20170510

Available from: 2017-05-10 Created: 2017-05-08 Last updated: 2017-05-10Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

SAE-PFL2017-Surge-Knock(486 kB)81 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 486 kBChecksum SHA-512
0820ff9cb2bd2537e396e512498031f42ab620899745455cb2c5c714d4104d59bd77d3032309855d0f2971b7bd6e96152c7baab69ca2a1a88360bd9923a92e3f
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Kerres, BertrandCronhjort, AndreasMihaescu, Mihai
By organisation
Machine Design (Dept.)Mechanics
Energy EngineeringVehicle Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 81 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Total: 55 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf