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Numerical and Experimental Studies of Deployment Dynamics of Space Webs and CubeSat Booms
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, experiments and simulations are performed to study the deployment dynamics of space webs and space booms, focusing on the deployment and stabilization phases of the space web and the behavior of the bi-stable tape spring booms after long-term stowage.

The space web, Suaineadh, was launched onboard the sounding rocket REXUS-12 from the Swedish launch base Esrange in Kiruna on 19 March 2012. It served as a technology demonstrator for a space web. A reaction wheel was used to actively control the deployment and stabilization states of the 2×2 m2 space web. After ejection from the rocket, the web was deployed but entanglements occurred since the web did not start to deploy at the specified angular velocity. The deployment dynamics was reconstructed by simulations from the information recorded by inertial measurement units and cameras. Simulations show that if the web would have started to deploy at the specified angular velocity, the web would most likely have been deployed and stabilized in space by the motor, reaction wheel and controller used in the experiment. A modified control method was developed to stabilize the out-of-plane motions before or during deployment. New web arms with tape springs were proposed to avoid entanglements.

A deployable booms assembly composed of four 1-m long bi-stable glass fiber tape springs was designed for the electromagnetically clean 3U CubeSat Small Explorer for Advanced Missions (SEAM). The deployment dynamics and reliability of the SEAM boom design after long-term stowage were tested by on-ground experiments. A simple analytical model was developed to predict the deployment dynamics and to assess the effects of the GOLS and the combined effects of friction, viscoelastic strain energy relaxation, and other factors that act to decrease the deployment force. In order to mitigate the viscoelastic effects and thus ensure self-deployment, different tape springs were designed, manufactured and tested. A numerical model was used to assess the long-term stowage effects on the deployment capability of bi-stable tape springs including the friction, nonlinear-elastic and viscoelastic effects. A finite element method was used to model a meter-class fully coiled bi-stable tape spring boom and verified by analytical models.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , p. 54
Series
TRITA-AVE, ISSN 1651-7660 ; TRITA-AVE 2017:28
Keywords [en]
Deployable structure, Space web, Centrifugal force deployment, Deployable boom, Bi-stable tape spring, Fiber-reinforced composite, Viscoelasticity
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-206594ISBN: 978-91-7729-399-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-206594DiVA, id: diva2:1093432
Public defence
2017-05-30, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Kungl Tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
SEAM
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 607197
Note

QC 20170508

Available from: 2017-05-08 Created: 2017-05-05 Last updated: 2017-05-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Post-launch analysis of the deployment dynamics of a space web sounding rocket experiment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Post-launch analysis of the deployment dynamics of a space web sounding rocket experiment
2016 (English)In: Acta Astronautica, ISSN 0094-5765, E-ISSN 1879-2030, Vol. 127, p. 345-358Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lightweight deployable space webs have been proposed as platforms or frames for a construction of structures in space where centrifugal forces enable deployment and stabilization. The Suaineadh project was aimed to deploy a 2 x 2 m2 space web by centrifugal forces in milli-gravity conditions and act as a test bed for the space web technology. Data from former sounding rocket experiments, ground tests and simulations were used to design the structure, the folding pattern and control parameters. A developed control law and a reaction wheel were used to control the deployment. After ejection from the rocket, the web was deployed but entanglements occurred since the web did not start to deploy at the specified angular velocity. The deployment dynamics was reconstructed from the information recorded in inertial measurement units and cameras. The nonlinear torque of the motor used to drive the reaction wheel was calculated from the results. Simulations show that if the Suaineadh started to deploy at the specified angular velocity, the web would most likely have been deployed and stabilized in space by the motor, reaction wheel and controller used in the experiment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Space web, Reaction wheel, Centrifugal deployment, Centrifugal stabilization
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-193975 (URN)10.1016/j.actaastro.2016.06.009 (DOI)000383525100033 ()2-s2.0-84975144678 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20161018

Available from: 2016-10-18 Created: 2016-10-14 Last updated: 2017-05-10Bibliographically approved
2. Simulation and control of a space web deployed by centrifugal forces in a sounding rocket experiment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation and control of a space web deployed by centrifugal forces in a sounding rocket experiment
2016 (English)In: AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference, 2016, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA , 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A deployable space web is a flexible structure that can act as a lightweight platform for construction of large structures in space. In order to save space and energy for small deployable structures, a one-step deployment method was a possible choice for future web deployment without complicated extending mechanisms. The aim of the Suaineadh experiment was to deploy and stabilize a space web by centrifugal forces and act as a test bed of the one-step deployment. Suaineadh, a 2 × 2 m2 space web, was ejected from the nose cone of REXUS-12 sounding rocket and deployed in a micro-gravity environment. A developed control law and a reaction wheel were used to control the deployment. Results from ground tests, simulations and former sounding rocket experiments were used to design the structure, folding pattern, control parameters and the deployment. During the experiment, the web was deployed but entanglements occurred since the web did not start to deploy at the specified proper initial angular velocity. It might be due to the broken inertial measurement unit which failed to detect the required spin rate of the hub or other unknown problems. The deployment dynamics was reconstructed from the information recorded by inertial measurement units and cameras. Simulations show that if the Suaineadh space web started to deploy at the specified proper angular velocity, the web would most likely have been deployed and stabilized in space by the motor, reaction wheel and controller used in the experiment. In actual flight, out-of-plane motions were observed both in deployment and stabilization phases. In order to stabilize the out-of-plane motions and reduce the risk of entanglement observed from experiment, simulation results show that small reaction wheels could be used before or during web deployment. Tape springs could also be used as web arms to avoid entanglement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA, 2016
Keywords
Angular velocity, Centrifugation, Flexible structures, Flight dynamics, Units of measurement, Wheels, Centrifugal Forces, Control parameters, Deployable structure, Deployment dynamics, Deployment methods, Inertial measurement unit, Large structures, Out-of-plane motion, Sounding rockets
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-195557 (URN)10.2514/6.2016-4421 (DOI)2-s2.0-84985930003 (Scopus ID)9781624104299 (ISBN)
Conference
AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference, 2016, 13 June 2016 through 17 June 2016
Note

QC 20161121

Available from: 2016-11-21 Created: 2016-11-03 Last updated: 2017-05-10Bibliographically approved
3. Deployment of Bistable Self-Deployable Tape Spring Booms Using a Gravity Offloading System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deployment of Bistable Self-Deployable Tape Spring Booms Using a Gravity Offloading System
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Journal of Aerospace Engineering, ISSN 0893-1321, E-ISSN 1943-5525, Vol. 30, no 4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bistable tape springs are suitable as deployable structures thanks to their high packaging ratio, self-deployment ability, low cost, light weight, and stiffness. A deployable booms assembly composed of four 1-m long bistable glass fiber tape springs was designed for the electromagnetically clean 3U CubeSat Small Explorer for Advanced Missions (SEAM). The aim of the present study was to investigate the deployment dynamics and reliability of the SEAM boom design after long-term stowage using onground experiments and simulations. A gravity offloading system (GOLS) was built and used for the onground deployment experiments. Two booms assemblies were produced and tested: a prototype and an engineering qualification model (EQM). The prototype assembly was deployed in a GOLS with small height, whereas the EQM was deployed in a GOLS with tall height to minimize the effects of the GOLS. A simple analytical model was developed to predict the deployment dynamics and to assess the effects of the GOLS and the combined effects of friction, viscoelastic relaxation, and other factors that act to decrease the deployment force. Experiments and simulations of the deployment dynamics indicate significant viscoelastic energy relaxation phenomena, which depend on the coiled radius and stowage time. In combination with friction effects, these viscoelastic effects decreased the deployment speed and the end-of-deployment shock vibrations. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Journal of Aerospace Engineering: , 2017
Keywords
Bi-stable tape spring, CubeSat Boom, Viscoelasticity, Gravity offloading system
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Research subject
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-206545 (URN)10.1061/(ASCE)AS.1943-5525.0000709 (DOI)000399893000007 ()2-s2.0-85017807651 (Scopus ID)
Projects
SEAM
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 607197
Note

QC 20170508

Available from: 2017-05-05 Created: 2017-05-05 Last updated: 2017-05-23Bibliographically approved
4. Design and analysis of laminates for self-deployment of viscoelastic bi-stable tape springs after long-term stowage
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and analysis of laminates for self-deployment of viscoelastic bi-stable tape springs after long-term stowage
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

Bi-stable tape springs are ultra-thin fiber-reinforced polymers composites, which could self-deploy through releasing stored strain energy. Strain energy relaxation is observed after long-term stowage of bi-stable tape springs due to viscoelastic effects and the tape springs might lose their self-deployment abilities. In order to mitigate the viscoelastic effects and thus ensure self-deployment, different tape springs were designed, manufactured and tested. Deployment experiments show that a 4-layer, [-45/0/90/45], plain weave glass fiber tape spring has ahigh capability to mitigate the strain energy relaxation effects to ensure self-deployment after long-term stowage in a coiled configuration. The two inner layers increase the deployment force and the outer layers are used to generate the bi-stability. The presented 4-layer tape spring can self-deploy after more than 6 months of stowage at room temperature. A numerical model was used to assess the long-term stowage effects on the deployment capability of bi-stable tape springs. The experiments and modeling results show that the viscoelastic strain energy relaxationstarts after only a few minutes after coiling. The relaxation shear stiffness decreases as the shear strain increases and is further reduced by strain energy relaxation when a constant shear strain is loaded. The numerical model and experiments could be applied in design to predict the deployment force of other types of tape springs with viscoelastic and friction effects included.

Keywords
Bi-stable tape springs, fiber reinforced composites, viscoelastic effects, laminate, long-term stowage, deployment, coilable flexible structure, CubeSat, Space boom
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-206552 (URN)
Projects
SEAM
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 607197
Note

QC 20170508

Available from: 2017-05-05 Created: 2017-05-05 Last updated: 2017-05-23Bibliographically approved
5. Experiments and Simulations of the Deploymentof a Bi-stable Composite Boom
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiments and Simulations of the Deploymentof a Bi-stable Composite Boom
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

The rapidly growing use of nano- and pico-satellites for space missions requires de-ployable systems to be highly storable yet large and with adequate mechanical properties when deployed. This paper focuses on the modeling and simulation of a meter-class passively deployable boom, based on the self-contained linear meter-class deployable(SIMPLE) boom by Thomas W. Murphey, exploiting the bi-stable nature of compositeshells. Experimental tests were carried on a boom prototype suspended in a gravityo-offloading system. The strain energy level, deployment time and spacecraft displacements calculated from the finite element method agree well with analytical analyses, confirming the theoretical accuracy of the finite element method. Since friction and strain energy relaxation were not accurately included in the model, the finite element simulations predict deployment times up to five times shorter than those of the gravity off-loaded boom experiments. The quick deployment and violent end-of-deployment shock create boom deployment dynamics which are not seen in the experiments. 

Keywords
CubeSat, deployable boom, tape spring, bi-stable boom, space boom, finite element method, gravity off loading system
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-206590 (URN)
Note

QC 20170509

Available from: 2017-05-05 Created: 2017-05-05 Last updated: 2017-05-09Bibliographically approved
6. EXPERIMENTS AND ANALYTICAL MODELING FOR DESIGNING TAPE SPRING COMPOSITES
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EXPERIMENTS AND ANALYTICAL MODELING FOR DESIGNING TAPE SPRING COMPOSITES
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

Lightweight fiber reinforced tape spring composites are proposed for deployable space structures for nanosatellites. Neutral stable carbon fiber tape springs and bi-stable glass fiber tape springs were manufactured and their self-deployabilities after stowage were experimentally tested. The viscoelastic effects of the composites used were experimentally investigated. An analysis methodology that predicts neutral stability or bi-stability in appropriately arranging fiber directions, layups and fabric properties is presented. A design method flowchart is presented to give a reference for designing neutral or bi-stable tape springs based on the experiments and the analytical model, e.g., material type, layup, fibers direction andstability parameters. The tape spring properties before and after stowage can be predicted. The analytical model shows that fabrics of high strength fibers and low shear modulus resin with layer angle ±45o are good choices for neutrally tape springs and adding inner 0o/90o layers can increase the deployment force for bi-stable tape springs. The bi-stable glass fiber tape springs that can self-deploy after more than 6 months of stowage and high strength carbon fiber neutrally tape springs were fabricated.

National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Research subject
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-206556 (URN)
Projects
SEAM
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 607197
Note

QC 20170508

Available from: 2017-05-05 Created: 2017-05-05 Last updated: 2017-05-08Bibliographically approved

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Output format
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