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Evaluation of hand skin temperature -Infrared thermography in combination with cold stress tests
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Abstract

Since ancient times, warm or cold skin on the human body has been used as a parameter in evaluating health. Changes in body temperature are attributed to diseases or disorders. The assessment of body temperature is often performed to measure fever by detecting an elevated core temperature. With techniques such as infrared thermography, it is possible to perform a non-contact temperature measurement on a large surface area. The overall aim of this thesis was to contribute to a better understanding of the hand skin temperature variability in healthy persons and in persons experiencing whitening fingers (WF).

The enclosed four papers discuss issues such as thermal variability response to cold stress test (CST) in repeated investigations; the specific rewarming pattern after CST; the difference between the hand’s palmar and dorsal temperatures; and evaluating skin temperatures and response to CST in participants with WF and healthy participants. All four papers used an experimental approach involving healthy males (I-III) and females (III) as well as individuals with (IV) and without WF (I-IV). Data were generated using dynamic infrared imaging before and after a CST. The radiometric images were analyzed using image analysis and statistics.

The study showed that: (I) there is variability in hand skin temperature; (II) there are cold and warm hand skin temperature response patterns; (III) the skin temperatures on the palmar and dorsal sides of the hand are closely related; and (IV) a baseline hand skin temperature measurement can distinguish between whitening fingers and controls.

The conclusion of this thesis is that it is necessary to engage in thorough planning before an investigation in order to choose the most adequate method for evaluating peripheral skin temperature response depending on the question asked.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå tekniska universitet , 2017. , 55 p.
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keyword [en]
cold provocation, rewarming, thermoregulation, dynamic IR thermography
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Health Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63216ISBN: 978-91-7583-900-4 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7583-901-1 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-63216DiVA: diva2:1092434
Public defence
2017-06-02, D770 Deltasalen, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-05-03 Created: 2017-05-02 Last updated: 2017-05-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Thermal response after cold-water provocation of hands in healthy young men
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermal response after cold-water provocation of hands in healthy young men
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2015 (English)In: Thermology International, ISSN 1560-604X, Vol. 25, no 2, 48-53 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The thermal response in hands provoked by cold water was investigated with infrared thermography. In 26 healthy young men, the response of hand skin temperature to cold water provocation was measured twice on consecutive days. An infrared thermographic camera was used and data were processed in real time. The software divides each hand into 18 predefined regions of interest (ROI). The average temperature in each ROI was stored every 10th second. Baseline hand skin temperature was recorded for two minutes. The bare hands were then immersed for 30 seconds in water at 10°C × 0.5°C and carefully dried. Thereafter, the cooled and final hand skin temperature was measured. The baseline showed a higher average temperature of 0.3°C on day 2 and the 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were - 5.2-5.8, the cooled average temperatures showed no significant difference between the two days (LOA: - 4.8-4.6) and the average final hand skin temperature was 0.8°C higher on day 2 (LOA: - 5.2-6.4). In conclusion, there was variability between the two measurements, small differences in the temperature response to the reaction to cold-water provocation - probably due to Day 1 stress factor.

National Category
Other Health Sciences
Research subject
Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-2973 (URN)2-s2.0-85004011406 (Scopus ID)0b7f1b85-c28d-4031-8b3b-2715eb8a79d9 (Local ID)0b7f1b85-c28d-4031-8b3b-2715eb8a79d9 (Archive number)0b7f1b85-c28d-4031-8b3b-2715eb8a79d9 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2015; Nivå 1; 20150521 (nikle)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2017-07-05Bibliographically approved
2. Hand skin temperature: are there warm and cold rewarming patterns after cold stress test?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hand skin temperature: are there warm and cold rewarming patterns after cold stress test?
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2016 (English)In: Thermology International, ISSN 1560-604X, Vol. 26, no 3, 81-87 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In 116 thermographic measurements of 66 healthy male participants, 44 of whom were measured at least twice, hand skin temperature distributions before and after a cold stress test (CST) were examined to identify any typical characteristics of hand skin rewarming. On each hand, measurements from 18 regions of interest recorded every 10 s were used to calculate the surface average temperature. Temperatures at baseline (Tb), directly after cooling (Tc), and after 15 min of rewarming (Tf) were used for comparison and the averages of each finger, palm, and hand were analyzed. Using fits of normal distribution for the measured data, final hand skin temperatures were divided into two groups, A and B, with a calculated boundary at 25.4 °C. Digital analyses of all thermograms were performed to describe the process, and each group's rewarming patterns were observed. Group A was considered to demonstrate warm rewarming, since the whole hands reached a Tf approximately equal to the Tb. By contrast, Group B demonstrated cold rewarming and had whole hand Tf less than Tb. The predictive value of Tc was lower than that of Tb in Group A, whereas the opposite occurred in Group B. Altogether, the findings suggest different hand skin temperature rewarming patterns in healthy males.

National Category
Other Health Sciences
Research subject
Health Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-11572 (URN)2-s2.0-85005987231 (Scopus ID)a94b21bd-cfa7-4507-ab07-0baf7a860395 (Local ID)a94b21bd-cfa7-4507-ab07-0baf7a860395 (Archive number)a94b21bd-cfa7-4507-ab07-0baf7a860395 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 1; 2016-11-21 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2017-07-05Bibliographically approved
3. Relation between dorsal and palmar hand skin temperatures during a cold stress test
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relation between dorsal and palmar hand skin temperatures during a cold stress test
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Thermal Biology, ISSN 0306-4565, E-ISSN 1879-0992, Vol. 66, 87-92 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hand skin temperature measurements have previously been performed on either dorsal or palmar sides and it is possible to find arguments for the advantage of both locations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use dynamic infrared (IR) imaging to examine the relationship between dorsal and palmar hand skin temperature. The palmar and dorsal hand skin temperature before and after a cold stress test was measured with IR thermography in 112 healthy participants. Calculation of surface average temperature was made from nine regions of interest on each hand's dorsal and palmar side. Temperature values were recorded at baseline, directly after immersion of hands in vinyl gloves for one minute in water at 20 °C ± 0.5 °C (gloves removed), and after eight minutes rewarming. Results showed that: a) the skin temperatures on the dorsal and palmar sides of the hand are strongly correlated; b) the correlation is stronger on the fingers than on the carpometacarpal (CMC) area; c) the palmar side of the CMC area is warmer than the dorsal side, but this is reversed in the fingers so that the nail bed is warmer than the finger pad; and d) the temperature difference ∆T∆T between the dorsal and palmar sides of the fingers is independent of the skin temperature, though ∆T∆T on the CMC area of the hand is temperature dependent. Such differences can be important in detailed investigations of thermal phenomena in the hand. In conclusion, results showed a strong correlation between the dorsal and palmar temperatures. If both sides cannot be measured, the purpose of the investigation should determine which side of the hand should be measured.

National Category
Other Health Sciences Other Medical Engineering
Research subject
Health Science; Medical Engineering for Healthcare
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63050 (URN)10.1016/j.jtherbio.2017.04.003 (DOI)000401388300012 ()28477914 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85017527831 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-04-28 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-04-18 Created: 2017-04-18 Last updated: 2017-07-05Bibliographically approved

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