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Tracking Emissions Reductions and Energy Efficiency in the Steel Industry
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3618-1259
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The iron and steel industry has become increasingly globalised. Market conditions are also changing and de-carbonisation of production is challenging.

The objective of this thesis is to assess how energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions reductions can be promoted and effectively monitored in the steel industry. The thesis contributes with analyses based on the Malmquist Productivity Index for a top-down analysis of the energy efficiency of EU Member States’ iron and steel production, and Partial Least Squares regression for bottom-up assessments of different monitoring tools. The thesis also contributes with a scrap availability assessment module to enhance the energy system model ETSAP-TIAM.

The first phase of the research showed that future production needs to shift towards innovative low-CO2 technologies even when all available recycled material is fully used. Techniques using carbon capture and storage (CCS) as well as hydrogen-based technologies can be expected to become economically viable under tightened climate policies.

The second phase of the research showed that current indicators are insufficient. System boundaries of energy use and emissions data do not align with production statistics. Indicators based on energy use or emissions in relation to production in physical terms may be useful to track specific processes. However, current indicators fail to reflect the companies’ product mix. Enhanced energy and climate indicators that adjust for the product mix provide better estimates while failing to reflect the increasing globalisation.

Effective monitoring of industrial transformation will be increasingly important as pressure from climate policy via global CO2-pricing is unlikely in the short term. Current or enhanced indicators do not fully capture industrial transformation and are not recommended. Future research should focus on defining indicators to estimate energy use and emissions along industrial value chains in climate policy contexts.

Abstract [sv]

Järn- och stålindustrin har blivit alltmer globaliserad. Marknadsvillkoren förändras samtidigt som utfasningen av fossila bränslen är utmanande.

Målet med den här avhandlingen är att bedöma hur energieffektivitet och växthusgasutsläppsminskningar kan främjas och effektivt utvärderas inom stålindustrin. Avhandlingen bidrar med analyser baserade Malmquists produktivitetsindex för att analysera energieffektivitet av EU:s medlemsstaters järn- och stålproduktion, och partiell minsta- kvadrat-regression för att bedöma olika utvärderingsmått. Avhandlingen bidrar även med en modul som bedömer skrottillgång för att förbättra energisystemmodellen ETSAP-TIAM.

I en första fas visade forskningen att framtida produktion behöver ställas om mot innovativa teknologier med låga CO2-utsläpp även när allt tillgängligt återvunnet material används fullt ut. Tekniker som använder koldioxidinfångning och -lagring (CCS) samt vätebaserade teknologier kan förväntas bli ekonomiskt försvarbara under åtstramade klimatpolitiska styrmedel.

I en andra fas visade forskningen att nuvarande indikatorer är otillräckliga. Systemgränser för energianvändnings- och växthusgasutsläppsdata stämmer inte överens med produktionsstatistik. Indikatorer utifrån energianvändning eller utsläpp i relation till fysisk produktion kan vara användbara för att följa upp specifika processer. Nuvarande indikatorer lyckas dock inte spegla företagens produktmix. Förbättrade energi- och klimatindikatorer som justerar för produktmixen ger bättre uppskattningar, men speglar inte branschens ökande globalisering.

Effektiv utvärdering av industriell transformation blir alltmer viktig då påtryckning från klimatpolitiska styrmedel via global CO2-prissättning är kortsiktigt osannolik. Nuvarande eller förbättrade indikatorer fångar inte industriell transformation fullt ut och rekommenderas inte. Framtida forskning bör fokusera på att definiera indikatorer som uppskattar energianvändning och växthusgasutsläpp längs industriella värdekedjor. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , 98 p.
Series
TRITA-ECS Report, 17/01
Keyword [en]
energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions reductions, indicators, iron and steel industry, systems analysis
Keyword [sv]
energieffektivitet, växthusgasutsläppsminskning, indikatorer, järn- och stålbranschen, systemanalys
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-205882ISBN: 978-91-7729-382-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-205882DiVA: diva2:1091961
Public defence
2017-06-02, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20170428

Available from: 2017-04-28 Created: 2017-04-28 Last updated: 2017-04-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Methodological differences behind energy statistics for steel production – implications when monitoring energy efficiency
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methodological differences behind energy statistics for steel production – implications when monitoring energy efficiency
2014 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 77, no SI, 391-396 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy efficiency indicators used for evaluating industrial activities at the national level are often based on statistics reported in international databases. In the case of the Swedish iron and steel sector, energy consumption statistics published by Odyssee, Eurostat, the IEA (International Energy Agency), and the United Nations differ, resulting in diverging energy efficiency indicators. For certain years, the specific energy consumption for steel is twice as high if based on Odyssee statistics instead of statistics from the IEA. The analysis revealed that the assumptions behind the allocation of coal and coke used in blast furnaces as energy consumption or energy transformation are the major cause for these differences. Furthermore, the differences are also related to errors in the statistical data resulting from two different surveys that support the data. The allocation of coal and coke has implications when promoting resource as well as energy efficiency at the systems level. Eurostat's definition of energy consumption is more robust compared to the definitions proposed by other organisations. Nevertheless, additional data and improved energy efficiency indicators are needed to fully monitor the iron and steel sector's energy system and promote improvements towards a greener economy at large.

Keyword
energy and resource efficiency, iron and steel sector, energy use statistics
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-148578 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2014.09.020 (DOI)000346542500044 ()2-s2.0-84909987499 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 36365-1
Note

QC 20150213. Updated from accepted to published.

Available from: 2014-08-08 Created: 2014-08-08 Last updated: 2017-04-28Bibliographically approved
2. Capturing energy efficiency in European iron and steel production: comparing specific energy consumption and Malmquist productivity index
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Capturing energy efficiency in European iron and steel production: comparing specific energy consumption and Malmquist productivity index
2014 (English)In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 7, no 6, 955-972 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

European iron and steel producers are working towards increased energy efficiency to meet requirements set by European policies such as the Energy Efficiency Directive. In this study, we show that the Specific Energy Consumption (SEC), representing the iron and steel sector in the Odyssee Energy Efficiency Index (ODEX) - the tool for policy evaluation recommended by the European Commission, is insufficient for capturing energy efficiency trends of European iron and steel production. European producers focus on niche markets, diversifying and specialising their set of products well beyond crude steel, which is the benchmark product for deriving the SEC. We compare the SEC with the more comprehensive Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) methodology, which is calculated using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) techniques. An evaluation of energy efficiency trends during 2000 – 2010 showed that the SEC overestimated energy efficiency improvements for European steel industries, while underestimating the improvements achieved by Swedish steel industries. A comparison between the SEC, the MPI/DEA approach and energy intensity based on value added in the Swedish case provides further insight to the methodological differences between the approaches. We conclude that the approaches highlight different aspects of energy efficiency analyses, and that the SEC is not sufficient for capturing energy efficiency of steel industries.

Keyword
policy evaluation, energy efficiency, specific energy consumption, SEC, iron and steel production, Malmquist Productivity Index, Data Envelopment Analysis
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144051 (URN)10.1007/s12053-014-9264-8 (DOI)000344533500003 ()2-s2.0-84920709109 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20141204

Available from: 2014-04-07 Created: 2014-04-07 Last updated: 2017-04-28Bibliographically approved
3. Economic and operational factors in energy and climate indicators for the steel industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic and operational factors in energy and climate indicators for the steel industry
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 8, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

European steel producers need to increase energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions to meet requirements set by European policies. Robust indicators are needed to follow up these efforts. This bottom-up analysis of traditional energy and climate indicators is based on plant level data from three Swedish steel producers with different product portfolios and production processes. It concludes that indicators based on both physical and economic production are interlinked with aspects both within and outside the company gates. Results estimated with Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) confirm that steel production has complex relationships with markets, societal context and operational character of the industry. The study concludes that: (i) physical indicators (based on crude steel production) may be useful at the process level, but not at the industry-wide level, (ii) the value added is not a reliable alternative since it cannot be properly estimated for companies belonging to larger international groups, and (iii) structural shifts may influence the results significantly, and veil improvements made at the process level. Finally, harmonized system boundary definitions are vital for making indicators comparable between companies. The use of traditional indicators, as defined today, may lead to uninformed decisions at the company as well as policy levels.

Keyword
specific energy consumption, CO2 emissions, physical and economic indicators, industrial evaluation, iron and steel industry
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-148579 (URN)10.1007/s12053-014-9296-0 (DOI)000353824300004 ()2-s2.0-84907653015 (Scopus ID)
Note

Updated from from submitted to published.

QC 20150521

Available from: 2014-08-08 Created: 2014-08-08 Last updated: 2017-04-28Bibliographically approved
4. Improving energy and climate indicators for the steel industry: the case of Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving energy and climate indicators for the steel industry: the case of Sweden
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 107, 581-592 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy and climate indicators are required for monitoring and controlling the effectiveness of regional as well as national initiatives towards increasing energy efficiency and reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Indicators are also needed for monitoring measures implemented within companies. Recent studies show that traditional energy efficiency indicators do not capture product differentiation or value creation in the steel industry, while observed trends capture structural shifts instead. In this study, methods combining physical and techno-economic perspectives on energy and CO2 efficiency are proposed for alleviating these problems. The methods were evaluated using data from three Swedish steel producers. The results compensate for structural shifts when focused on physical production. When focused on economic production, the methods represent the value creation of the companies more strongly than traditional indicators. The proposed methods may be useful complements to traditional indicators for monitoring energy and CO2 efficiency. However, the trends show strong links with the economic climate, which may reduce companies’ possibilities of using the indicators for monitoring their own performance. The study confirms the high complexity in monitoring energy and CO2 efficiency within steel companies focused on high-value market segments. Further research is required in exploring issues related to data confidentiality, product portfolios and processes represented in the method, influence of external factors, and aggregating indicators at sectoral level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keyword
energy efficiency, CO2 emissions, iron and steel, indicators
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-166749 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.05.031 (DOI)000363071000057 ()2-s2.0-84942984054 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Robusta energi- och klimatindikatorer för stålindustrin
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 36365-1
Note

QC 20150615

Available from: 2015-05-15 Created: 2015-05-15 Last updated: 2017-04-28Bibliographically approved
5. The impact of climate targets on future steel production - an analysis based on a global energy system model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of climate targets on future steel production - an analysis based on a global energy system model
2014 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 103, 469-482 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper addresses how a global climate target may influence iron and steel production technology deployment and scrap use. A global energy system model, ETSAP-TIAM, was used and a Scrap Availability Assessment Model (SAAM) was developed to analyse the relation between steel demand, recycling and the availability of scrap and their implications for steel production technology choices. Steel production using recycled materials has a continuous growth and is likely to be a major route for steel production in the long run. However, as the global average of in-use steel stock increases up to the current average stock of the industrialised economies, global steel demand keeps growing and stagnates only after 2050. Due to high steel demand levels and scarcity of scrap, more than 50% of the steel production in 2050 will still have to come from virgin materials. Hydrogen-based steel production could become a major technology option for production from virgin materials, particularly in a scenario where Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is not available. Imposing a binding climate target will shift the crude steel price to approximately 500 USD per tonne in the year 2050, provided that CCS is available. However, the increased prices are induced by COprices rather than inflated production costs. It is concluded that a global climate target is not likely to influence the use of scrap, whereas it shall have an impact on the price of scrap. Finally, the results indicate that energy efficiency improvements of current processes will only be sufficient to meet the climate target in combination with CCS. New innovative techniques with lower climate impact will be vital for mitigating climate change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keyword
ETSAP-TIAM, SAAM, steel production, technology choice, climate change
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144837 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.04.045 (DOI)000356990800045 ()2-s2.0-84899780306 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150708

Available from: 2014-04-29 Created: 2014-04-29 Last updated: 2017-04-28Bibliographically approved

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