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Hybrid Plasmonic Devices for Optical Communication and Sensing
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO. KTH.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3618-6049
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Hybrid plasmonic (HP) waveguides, a multi-layer waveguide structure supporting a hybrid mode of surface plasmonics and Si photonics, is a compromise way to integrate plasmonic materials into Si or SOI platforms, which can guide optical waves of sub-wavelength size, and with relative low propagation loss. In this thesis, several HP waveguides and devices are developed for the purposes of optical communications and sensing. The single-slot HP ring resonator sensor with 2.6µm radius can give a quality factor (factor) of 1300 at the communication wavelength of 1.5µm with a device sensitivity of 102nm/RIU (refractive index unit). The Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with a 40µm double-slot HP waveguide has a device sensitivity around 474nm/RIU. The partly open silicon side-coupled double-slot HP ring resonator has a device sensitivity of 687.5nm/RIU, with a Q factor over 1000 after optimization. Further, an all-optical switching HP donut resonator with a photothermal plasmonic absorber is developed, utilizing the thermal expansion effect of silicon to shift the resonant peak of the HP resonator. The active area has a radius of 10µm to match the core size of a single-mode fiber. By applying 10mW power of the driving laser to the absorber, the resonator transmitted power can be changed by 15dB, with an average response time of 16µs. Using the same fabrication flow, and removing the oxide materials using hydrogen fluoride wet etching, a hollow HP waveguide is fabricated for liquid sensing applications. The experimentally demonstrated waveguide sensitivity is about 0.68, which is more than twice that of pure Si waveguide device. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) can also be integrated into vertical HP waveguides. By tuning the thickness of the air gap, over 20dB transmitted power change was experimentally demonstrated. This can be used for optical switching applications by either changing the absorption or phase of the HP devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , p. 74
Series
TRITA-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2017:24
National Category
Telecommunications Nano Technology
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-205974ISBN: 978-91-7729-365-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-205974DiVA, id: diva2:1090914
Public defence
2017-05-22, Sal C, Electrum, Kistagången 16, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20170427

Available from: 2017-04-27 Created: 2017-04-25 Last updated: 2017-04-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. High-sensitivity liquid refractive-index sensor based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a double-slot hybrid plasmonic waveguide
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-sensitivity liquid refractive-index sensor based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a double-slot hybrid plasmonic waveguide
2015 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 23, no 20, p. 25688-25699Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) liquid sensor, employing ultra-compact double-slot hybrid plasmonic (DSHP) waveguide as active sensing arm, is developed. Numerical results show that extremely large optical confinement factor of the tested analytes (as high as 88%) can be obtained by DSHP waveguide with optimized geometrical parameters, which is larger than both, conventional SOI waveguides and plasmonic slot waveguides with same widths. As for MZI sensor with 40 mu m long DSHP active sensing area, the sensitivity can reach as high value as 1061nm/RIU (refractive index unit). The total loss, excluding the coupling loss of the grating coupler, is around 4.5dB.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Optical Society of America, 2015
Keywords
Silicon-On-Insulator, Resonators
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179177 (URN)10.1364/OE.23.025688 (DOI)000365077900026 ()26480084 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84943781741 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20151214

Available from: 2015-12-14 Created: 2015-12-11 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
2. Double-Slot Hybrid Plasmonic Ring Resonator Used for Optical Sensors and Modulators
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Double-Slot Hybrid Plasmonic Ring Resonator Used for Optical Sensors and Modulators
2015 (English)In: Photonics, E-ISSN 2304-6732, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 1116-1130Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An ultra-high sensitivity double-slot hybrid plasmonic (DSHP) ring resonator, used for optical sensors and modulators, is developed. Due to high index contrast, as well as plasmonic enhancement, a considerable part of the optical energy is concentrated in the narrow slots between Si and plasmonic materials (silver is used in this paper), which leads to high sensitivity to the infiltrating materials. By partial opening of the outer plasmonic circular sheet of the DSHP ring, a conventional side-coupled silicon on insulator (SOI) bus waveguide can be used. Experimental results demonstrate ultra-high sensitivity (687.5 nm/RIU) of the developed DSHP ring resonator, which is about five-times higher than for the conventional Si ring with the same geometry. Further discussions show that a very low detection limit (5.37 × 10−6 RIU) can be achieved after loaded Q factor modifications. In addition, the plasmonic metal structures offer also the way to process optical and electronic signals along the same hybrid plasmonic circuits with small capacitance (~0.275 fF) and large electric field, which leads to possible applications in compact high-efficiency electro-optic modulators, where no extra electrodes for electronic signals are required

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Switzerland: MDPI AG, 2015
Keywords
integrated optics, waveguides, plasmonic
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-198460 (URN)10.3390/photonics2041116 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20161215

Available from: 2016-12-14 Created: 2016-12-14 Last updated: 2017-05-23Bibliographically approved
3. Nanoscale Surface Plasmon Polariton Disk Resonators, a Theoretical Analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanoscale Surface Plasmon Polariton Disk Resonators, a Theoretical Analysis
2016 (English)In: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, ISSN 1077-260X, E-ISSN 1558-4542, Vol. 22, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We analyze whispering gallery-type disk resonators with radii down to 50 nm. Single interface waveguiding is accomplished by a plasmonic-dielectric interface operating near the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) resonance, employing a hypothetical material with lower loss than what is currently available in metals or negative permittivity media. The disk is immersed in a second dielectric, nonresonant to the plasmonic medium. Due to the high effective index of the disk mode and the concomitant low radiation losses, the quality (Q) values of the resonator are solely determined by material losses, in contrast to more conventional nanoscale resonators. We calculate the dependence of the effective indices of the guided mode, the Q values of absorption and radiation, and the Purcell factor on the deviation from the SPP resonance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2016
Keywords
Integrated optics, optical resonators, plasmons
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-180910 (URN)10.1109/JSTQE.2015.2479924 (DOI)000364842500001 ()2-s2.0-84946761408 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20160129

Available from: 2016-01-29 Created: 2016-01-25 Last updated: 2017-04-27Bibliographically approved
4. All-Optical Switching Using a Hybrid Plasmonic Donut Resonator With Photothermal Absorber
Open this publication in new window or tab >>All-Optical Switching Using a Hybrid Plasmonic Donut Resonator With Photothermal Absorber
Show others...
2016 (English)In: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, ISSN 1041-1135, E-ISSN 1941-0174, Vol. 28, no 15, p. 1609-1612Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel hybrid plasmonic (HP) donut resonator integrated with a photothermal plasmonic absorber has been developed, which can be used as a compact all-optical switch or modulator. The radius of the fabricated HP donut resonator is 1.8 mu m, with a resonant wavelength around 1550 nm and a quality factor (Q factor) around 600. The photothermal plasmonic absorber is directly integrated above the HP device, which can absorb as much as 75% of impinging optical power at 1064 nm wavelength. Since the absorber is in tight contact to the Si ridge of the HP waveguide, the absorbed optical power can efficiently heat up the Si ridge, and hence change the resonant wavelength of the HP donut resonator by Si thermal expansion effect. Experimental results show that the power used for 15 dB amplitude switch is only 10 mW, with rise and fall response times around 18 and 14 mu s, respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016
Keywords
Integrated optics, plasmons, optical resonators
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-190645 (URN)10.1109/LPT.2016.2558478 (DOI)000379753400002 ()2-s2.0-84973862284 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160818

Available from: 2016-08-18 Created: 2016-08-12 Last updated: 2017-04-27Bibliographically approved
5. Hollow hybrid plasmonic Mach-Zehnder sensor
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hollow hybrid plasmonic Mach-Zehnder sensor
2017 (English)In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 42, no 4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI)-based liquid refractiveindex sensor, utilizing a hollow hybrid plasmonic (HP)waveguide as the sensing element, has been investigated,showing large sensitivity to the refractive index changesof the tested liquids, as well as lower propagation loss incomparison to typical plasmonic waveguide-based ones.The sensor is fabricated using conventional silicon-oninsulator(SOI) technology; therefore, it is compatible toother standard SOI devices. The waveguide sensitivity, Sw,is experimentally demonstrated to be 0.64, with a propagationloss less than 0.25 dB/μm. Using a 20 μm long hollowHP waveguide in the sensing arm, the sensitivity of the MZIsensor (device sensitivity, Sd ) is about 160 nm/RIU, with anextinction ratio larger than 40 dB.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Optical Society of America, 2017
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-205967 (URN)10.1364/OL.42.000807 (DOI)000394039500039 ()2-s2.0-85013477419 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170427

Available from: 2017-04-25 Created: 2017-04-25 Last updated: 2017-04-27Bibliographically approved
6. Slot hybrid plasmonic ring resonator used for optical sensors and modulators
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Slot hybrid plasmonic ring resonator used for optical sensors and modulators
2015 (English)In: Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, ACPC 2015, 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We theoretically and experimentally investigate performance of slot hybrid plasmonic rings, with better sensitivity regarding tested liquids than Si-based ones. This component can also be employed as high-efficiency optical modulators with active nonlinear material. © 2015 OSA.

National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-195156 (URN)2-s2.0-84971613751 (Scopus ID)9781943580064 (ISBN)
Conference
Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, ACPC 2015, 19 November 2015 through 23 November 2015
Note

Correspondence Address: Sun, X.; Laboratory of Photonics and Microwave Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Electrum 229, Sweden; email: xus@kth.se. QC 20161108

Available from: 2016-11-08 Created: 2016-11-02 Last updated: 2017-04-27Bibliographically approved
7. Hollow Hybrid Plasmonic Waveguide Used for Electro-optic Phase Modulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hollow Hybrid Plasmonic Waveguide Used for Electro-optic Phase Modulation
2016 (English)In: Optics InfoBase Conference Papers, Optical Society of America, 2016, p. AF3F.2-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An electro-optic polymer-based hollow hybrid plasmonic phase modulator has beenproposed. Estimating from our preliminary experimental results, related to a hollow HP liquidsensor, the proposed device shows unique advantages in high speed modulation applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Optical Society of America, 2016
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-205970 (URN)10.1364/ACPC.2016.AF3F.2 (DOI)2-s2.0-85016443527 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, ACPC 2016; Wuhan; China; 2 November 2016 through 5 November 2016
Note

QC 20170427

Available from: 2017-04-25 Created: 2017-04-25 Last updated: 2017-11-13Bibliographically approved
8. MEMS Tunable Hybrid Plasmonic-Si Waveguide
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MEMS Tunable Hybrid Plasmonic-Si Waveguide
2017 (English)In: OSA Technical Digest (online), 2017, p. Th2A.6-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A MEMS tunable hybrid plasmonic-Si (HP) waveguide is investigated, showing verylarge changes of both effective refractive index and propagation loss when applying bias voltage.Preliminary experimental results show that: with 15μm MEMS structure in Si waveguideplatform, the extinction ratio can be over 20dB between “on” and “off” states.

National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-205972 (URN)10.1364/OFC.2017.Th2A.6 (DOI)000403405800221 ()2-s2.0-85025584254 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC)
Note

QC 20170427

Available from: 2017-04-25 Created: 2017-04-25 Last updated: 2017-10-30Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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  • nn-NO
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Output format
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