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El impacto diferenciado de la inseguridad pública como otra expresión de la inequidad socio-económica: una exploración inicial al caso mexicano
Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics, Institute of Latin American Studies.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6995-1275
2017 (Spanish)In: Anuario Latinoamericano. Ciencias Politicas y Relaciones Internacionales, ISSN 2392-0343, Vol. 4, p. 61-81Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The unequal impact on public insecurity as another expression of socio-economic inequality: an initial exploration of the Mexican case

The increasing public insecurity has negatively affected the quality of life of all Mexicans. However, its impact is differentiated among diverse sectors of the population and it has deeper consequences depending on regional, gender, age and ethnic conditions. This situation is particularly sensible because it has aggravated the already historical socio-economic inequalities existing around the whole country. The two questions that this article tries to answer are: how public insecurity has exacerbated socio-economic inequality in Mexico? And what are the different responses of unequal socio-economic sectors to deal with public insecurity? In the article, it is argued that since 2006 when the war on drugs was launched, there has been a notorious increase of criminal violence and insecurity and the state authorities are incapable or unwilling to provide equitable public security to all Mexicans. Therefore, multiples organized and unorganized responses have been generated by the population, which go from contracting of private security forces, integrating self-defense groups, lynching, isolating in private enclaves among many other individual and collective, formal and informal, legal and non-legal measures that implicate differential cost and benefits for the people. The Mexican state representatives have the obligation to provide public security to all sectors without discrimination, but when they decide to decentralize, privatize or simply not act are falling to guarantee public security as a right that is considered a “key right” for the enjoinment of other rights such as free movement, free expression among many others. Consequently, it is damaging even more the already unequal socio-economic conditions experienced by the poorest and more vulnerable sectors in the country. The worsening of public security and the uneven responses from the population expose the lack of governance of the Mexican state representatives and their inability to distribute in an efficient and equitable manner a public good, such as public security. In addition, it shows its lack of capacity to exercise the legitimate monopoly of violence to face and control the non-state actors that generate insecurity and whom aggravated the inequality within the territories they control.  

Abstract [es]

La creciente inseguridad pública ha afectado negativamente la calidad de vida de todos los mexicanos. Sin embargo, su impacto ha sido diferenciado entre los diversos sectores de la población y se ha profundizado aún más por región, género, edad y/o etnicidad. Esta situación es particularmente delicada debido a que ha agravado las ya severas inequidades históricas socio-económicas predominantes en todo el país. Las preguntas que guían este artículo son: ¿Cómo ha agudizado el incremento de la inseguridad pública la inequidad socio-económica en México? y ¿Cuáles han sido las respuestas de distintos sectores de la población? En el texto se argumenta que ante el aumento de la violencia criminal a partir de la guerra contra las drogas en el 2006, así como ante la creciente incapacidad o falta de voluntad de los agentes estatales para proveer seguridad pública equitativa a toda la población, se han generado diversas respuestas organizadas y desorganizadas de los ciudadanos que van desde la contratación de servicios de seguridad privada, la formación de grupos de autodefensa, los linchamientos, el aislamiento en enclaves vigilados, entre otras medidas de seguridad individuales o colectivas, formales e informales, legales e ilegales que implican costos y beneficios desiguales para las personas. De esta forma, los agentes del Estado mexicano al decidir políticamente descentralizar, privatizar o desentenderse de su obligación fundamental de proveer seguridad pública a todos los mexicanos están dejando paulatinamente de garantizar un derecho considerado “llave” lo que limita el goce pleno de otros derechos como el de libre tránsito, educación, salud, libre expresión, entre otros, deteriorando aún más la inequidad existente en los sectores más pobres y vulnerables del país. La inseguridad pública y las distintas respuestas de los mexicanos reflejan entonces la falta de gobernabilidad del Estado para distribuir de forma eficiente y equitativa un bien público como la seguridad pública, así como su incapacidad para ejercer el legítimo monopolio de la violencia frente a la actuación de los agentes no-estatales que generan una mayor inseguridad y profundizan la inequidad en los territorio que controlan dentro del país.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 4, p. 61-81
Keywords [en]
inequality, security, justice, Mexico, Latin America, violence, discrimination
Keywords [es]
inequidad, inseguridad, violencia, México, desigualdad, discriminación
National Category
Other Humanities
Research subject
Sociology; Economics; Social Anthropology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-141941DOI: 10.17951/al.2017.4.61OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-141941DiVA, id: diva2:1089805
Available from: 2017-04-21 Created: 2017-04-21 Last updated: 2018-01-19Bibliographically approved

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