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Renewables Based Polygeneration for Rural Development in Bangladesh
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. (Polygeneration and membrane distillation)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3755-2813
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Despite the country's rural electrification programme, kerosene is the predominant source for lighting, and unsustainable and polluting woody biomass is virtually the only option available for cooking. The rural population also struggles with unsafe drinking water in terms of widespread arsenic contamination of well water. The present work has taken an integrated approach in an attempt to mitigate problems through small-scale polygeneration, a concept linking renewable energy sources to these energy needs via novel energy conversion systems.

Anaerobic digesters (AD) for biogas production are promising in the rural setting, and field surveys have identified problems in the construction, maintenance and operation of existing AD, particularly in overall performance of household digesters. Based on these results, a number of operational and technological improvements are suggested for employing digesters in polygeneration units. This study also examines one approach for small-scale, low cost arsenic removal in groundwater through air gap membrane distillation, a thermally-driven water purification technology.

Integration of biogas production with power generation and water purification is an innovative concept that lies at the core of feasibility analyses conducted in this work. One of the case studies presents a new concept for integrated biogas based polygeneration and analyzes the techno-economic performance of the scheme for meeting the demand of electricity, cooking energy and safe drinking water of 30 households in a rural village of Bangladesh. The specific technologies chosen for the key energy conversion steps are as follows: plug-flow digester; internal combustion engine; and membrane distillation. One major concern is local feedstock availability for the digester, since a single feedstock is impractical to serve both cooking, lighting and water purification systems. In this circumstance solar PV could be a potential option for integrated hybrid systems.

Abstract [sv]

Bangladesh har varit föremål för en svår energikris (bristande el- och gasnät) de senaste tre decennierna. Landsbygden, som innefattar 75 % av befolkningen, har varit särskilt drabbad. Trots landets elektrifieringsprogram av landsbygden är fotogenlampor den företrädande ljuskällan, medan förorenande och ohållbar träbaserad biomassa är praktiskt taget det enda alternativet för matlagning. Landsbygden kämpar samtidigt mot osäkert dricksvatten, på grund av utbredd arsenikförgiftning av brunnsvatten, med negativa hälsoeffekter som följd. Tillgång till ren energi och säkert dricksvatten är verkliga behov bland de fattiga på landsbygden, för ökad välfärd. Detta arbete antar ett integrerat tillvägagångssätt för att försöka lösa dessa problem genom småskalig polygenerering. Detta koncept länkar samman förnyelsebara energikällor av biomassa och sol med energibehoven, genom nya energiomvandlingssystem.

Anaerobiska rötkammare för biogasproduktion är lovande för landsbygdsmiljö, även om det för närvarande råder en betydande klyfta mellan den tekniska och kostandseffektiva potentialen och faktisk implementering på grund av bristande tekniskt kunnande och tillgång på råmaterial, höga installations- och driftkostnader, och begränsade användartillämpningar. Intervjuundersökningar visar på problem i konstruktion, underhåll och drift av befintliga anaerobiska rötkammare. Särskilt den generella prestandan hos hushållsrötkammare identifieras som bristfällig. Utifrån dessa resultat föreslås en rad drift- och teknikförbättringar för att utnyttja rötkammare i polygenereringssystem.  

Denna studie undersöker även en metod för småskalig och kostnadseffektiv arsenikrening av grundvatten genom membrandestillation med luftspalt (Air Gap Membrane Distillation, AGMD), vilket är en termiskt driven vattenreningsteknik. Resultat från en experimentell undersökning visar att den undersökta AGMD-prototypen är kapabel att uppnå utmärkt separationseffektivitet med hänsyn till arsenikrening. Parametriska studier med fokus på varierande kylvattentemperatur illustrerar möjligheten att integrera AGMD-teknik i diverse termiska system.

Integrering av biogasproduktion med kraftproduktion och vattenrening är ett innovativt koncept som utgör kärnan av förstudierna utförda i detta arbete. En av studierna visar ett nytt koncept för biogasbaserad polygenerering och analyserar den techno-ekonomiska prestandan av metoden för att möta efterfrågan av elektricitet, matlagningsvärme och säkert dricksvatten för 30 hushåll i en Bangladeshisk by på landsbygden. De specifika tekniker som valts för energiomvandlingsstegen är följande: plugg-flödesrötkammare, förbränningsmotor och en AGMD-enhet. Termodynamisk utvärdering inklusive mass- och energibalans av systemet undersöktes tillsammans med produktionskostnaden för elektricitet, matlagningsgas, och säkert dricksvatten. Även återbetalningsperiod och internräntan undersöktes. För att bemöta energi- och arsenikproblemen i Bangladesh, indikerar resultaten att detta polygenereringssystem är mycket mer konkurrenskraftigt och lovande (med avseende på produktionskostnaderna) jämfört med andra tillgängliga tekniker. Ett viktigt problem för rötkammaren är tillgången till lokalt råmaterial, eftersom en ensam källa till råmaterial är opraktiskt för att tillgodose efterfrågan från både matlagning, belysning och vattenrening. I detta fall kan solceller vara ett potentiellt alternativ för integrerade hybridsystem. Teknisk värdering och optimering har genomförts för elektricitet med verktyget HOMER (Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources), för ett polygenereringssystem beläget i byn Panipara i Faridpur. Resultaten visar att systement kan tillgodoses det dagliga elektricitetsbehovet och samtidigt producera 0.4 m3 matlagningsbränsle och 2-3 L/person rent dricksvatten. Kostnadsuppskattningar visar att denna metod är högst gynnsam jämfört med andra förnyelsebara alternativ (t ex vind-, vatten-, biobränslebaserad- eller geotermisk energi).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , p. 88
Series
TRITA-KRV, ISSN 1100-7990 ; 17/01
Keywords [en]
Anaerobic digester, solar PV, polygeneration, cooking gas, gas engine, electricity, membrane distillation, arsenic safe water
Keywords [sv]
Anaerobisk rötkammare, solceller, polygenerering, matlagningsgas, gasmotor, elektricitet, membrandestillering, arsenikfritt vatten
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-205556ISBN: 978-91-7729-373-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-205556DiVA, id: diva2:1089168
Public defence
2017-05-22, M3, Brinellvägen 64, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
SIDA – the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Department for Research Cooperation, SAREC- project no. SWE-2011-135STEM-Fjärrsyn project 2014
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, SWE-2011-135
Note

QC 20170419

Available from: 2017-04-19 Created: 2017-04-18 Last updated: 2017-05-22Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Review of biogas digester technology in rural Bangladesh
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Review of biogas digester technology in rural Bangladesh
2016 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 62, p. 247-259Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bangladesh has been facing severe energy crises (lack of electricity and gas supply network) during the last three decades, especially in rural areas. These areas are characterized by their often inefficient use of woody biomass, mainly for cooking purposes. To avoid the resulting environmental degradation and achieve sustainable development, access to clean and affordable energy is essential. Upgrading existing biomass resources (i.e., animal manure, crop residues, kitchen waste and green wastes) to biogas shows significant promise in this respect. This article presents a review of the current status of biogas digester technology in Bangladesh with focus on households in rural areas, covering 75% of the total population. Currently there exists a substantial gap between technical and cost-effective potential and the achievable potential due to lack of technical knowledge, high installation and operation costs, feedstock availability and limited end user applications. As a result only one percent of the overall biogas potential, estimated at 14.5x106 m3/yr, has been achieved despite government programs for promoting digester installation. Via in-field surveys this review has identified problems in the construction, maintenance and operation of biogas digesters, particularly in overall performance of household digesters. Based on these results a number of operational and technology improvements are suggested. Three digester implementation scenarios are introduced, and performance and cost estimates are projected to 2040. The most ambitious scenario leads to a five-fold increase in biogas output as compared to today’s levels; levelized energy costs can be halved with proper choice of digester technology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Anaerobic digestion; Biogas digesters in South-east Asia; Renewable energy; Digesters in rural Bangladesh; Animal and agriculture wastes; Performance forecasting
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-187624 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2016.04.044 (DOI)000379270600014 ()2-s2.0-84966267333 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
Note

QC 20160610

Available from: 2016-05-25 Created: 2016-05-25 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
2. Water purification of arsenic contaminated drinking water via air gap membrane distillation (AGMD)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Water purification of arsenic contaminated drinking water via air gap membrane distillation (AGMD)
2014 (English)In: Periodica Polytechnica, Mechanical Engineering, ISSN 1587-379X, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 47-53Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Arsenic contamination in shallow tubewell water is a serioushealth issue in Bangladesh and other Southeast Asian countries.Rural and remote areas in these locations continue toface tremendous challenges in providing access to affordableand safe arsenic-free drinking water. In recent years, intensiveefforts have been undertaken to identify appropriate technologiesfor arsenic removal. This study examines one approach byinvestigating the application of suitable membrane technologies,specifically air gap membrane distillation (AGMD), asa promising method for small-scale, low cost deployment. Theobjective of this study was to test an AGMD commercial prototype(nominal capacity of 2 L/hr) with three different feedstocks:arsenic-containing groundwater (medium concentration) andarsenic-spiked tap water (medium and high concentrations).Results show that the tested AGMD prototype is capable ofachieving excellent separation efficiency, as all product watersamples showed arsenic levels well below WHO accepted limits(10 μg/L) even for initial concentrations over 1800 μg/L.Parametric studies with focus on variation of coolant temperatureillustrate the possibility of integrating AGMD in variousthermal systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 2014
Keywords
arsenic removal · air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) · internal heat recovery · MD performance
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145681 (URN)10.3311/PPme.7422 (DOI)2-s2.0-84898015535 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140923

Available from: 2014-05-26 Created: 2014-05-26 Last updated: 2017-04-19Bibliographically approved
3. Techno-economic analysis of small scale biogas based polygeneration systems: Bangladesh case study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Techno-economic analysis of small scale biogas based polygeneration systems: Bangladesh case study
2014 (English)In: Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, ISSN 2213-1388, E-ISSN 2213-1396, Vol. 7, p. 68-78Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Access to electricity, clean energy, and safe drinking water services are genuine needs of the rural poor for their welfare. These needs can be addressed either individually or in an integrated approach. Biogas digesters are promising in the rural setting and integration of biogas production with power generation and water purification is an innovative concept that could be applied in remote areas of Bangladesh. This paper presents a new concept for integrated biogas based polygeneration and analyzes the techno-economic performance of the scheme for meeting the demand of electricity, cooking energy and safe drinking water of 30 households in a rural village of Bangladesh. The specific technologies chosen for the key energy conversion steps are as follows: plug-flow digester; internal combustion engine; and air-gap membrane distillation. Mass flows and energy balance, levelized cost of producing electricity, cooking gas and safe drinking water as well as the payback period of such a polygeneration system were analyzed. The results indicate that this polygeneration system is much more competitive and promising (in terms of levelized cost) than other available technologies when attempting to solve the energy and arsenic-related problems in Bangladesh. The payback period of such system is between 2.6 and 4 years.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keywords
Biogas, Polygeneration, Electricity, Pure water, Cooking gas
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145128 (URN)10.1016/j.seta.2014.03.004 (DOI)2-s2.0-84899146002 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150327

Available from: 2014-05-09 Created: 2014-05-09 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
4. Optimization of hybrid renewable energy polygeneration system with membrane distillation for rural households in Bangladesh
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization of hybrid renewable energy polygeneration system with membrane distillation for rural households in Bangladesh
2015 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 93, p. 1116-1126Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite the country's rural electrification program, kerosene is the predominant source for lighting, and woody biomass is virtually the only option available for cooking. The rural population also struggles with unsafe drinking water in terms of widespread arsenic contamination of well water. Biogas plants and pV are individually impractical to serve both cooking, lighting and water purification systems, and their combined applications are extremely limited. This study considers a holistic approach towards tackling both of these issues via integrated renewable energy-based polygeneration employed at the village level. The polygeneration unit under consideration provides electricity via a pV array and animal and agriculture waste-fed digester, which in turn is coupled to a gas engine. Excess digester gas is employed for cooking and lighting, while waste heat from the process drives a membrane distillation unit for water purification. Technical assessments and optimization have been conducted with HOMER (Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources). Results show that daily electricity demand can be met with such a system while simultaneously providing 0.4 m3 cooking fuel and 2e3 L pure drinking water. Cost estimates indicate that this approach is highly favorable to other renewable options. The pay back period of such system is between 3 and 4 years.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Biogas digesters; Solar pV; Membrane distillation; Decentralized energy system
National Category
Energy Engineering Energy Systems Economics Water Treatment
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176017 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2015.09.109 (DOI)000367630200100 ()2-s2.0-84949679503 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20151028. QC 20160203

Available from: 2015-10-27 Created: 2015-10-27 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved

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