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Flexible and Cellulose-based Organic Electronics
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University. (Laboratory of Organic Electronics)ORCID iD: F-8962-2017
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Organic electronics is the study of organic materials with electronic functionality and the applications of such materials. In the 1970s, the discovery that polymers can be made electrically conductive led to an explosion within this field which has continued to grow year by year. One of the attractive features of organic electronic materials is their inherent mechanical flexibility, which has led to the development of numerous flexible electronics technologies such as organic light emitting diodes and solar cells on flexible substrates. The possibility to produce electronics on flexible substrates like plastic or paper has also had a large impact on the field of printed, electronics where inks with electronic functionality are used for large area fabrication of electronic devices using classical printing methods, such as screen printing, inkjet printing and flexography.

Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of cellulose in organic and printed electronics, not only as a paper substrate but also as a component in composite materials where the cellulose provides mechanical strength and favorable 3D-microstructures. Nanofibrillated cellulose is composed of cellulose fibers with high aspect-ratio and diameters in the nanometer range. Due to its remarkable mechanical strength, large area-to-volume ratio, optical transparency and solution processability it has been widely used as a scaffold or binder for electronically active materials in applications such as batteries, supercapacitors and optoelectronics.

The focus of this thesis is on flexible devices based on conductive polymers and can be divided into two parts: (1) Composite materials of nanofibrillated cellulose and the conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS and (2) patterning of vapor phase polymerized conductive polymers. In the first part, it is demonstrated how the combination of cellulose and conductive polymers can be used to make electronic materials of various form factors and functionality. Thick, freestanding and flexible “papers” are used to realize electrochemical devices such as transistors and supercapacitors while lightweight, porous and elastic aerogels are used for sensor applications. The second focus of the thesis is on a novel method of patterning conductive polymers produced by vapor phase polymerization using UV-light. This method is used to realize flexible electrochromic smart windows with high-resolution images and tunable optical contrast.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017. , 73 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1845
Keyword [en]
Organic electronics, conductive polymers, nanocellulose, nanofibrillated cellulose, composite materials, paper electronics, flexible electronics
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136518DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-1089149ISBN: 978-91-7685-542-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-136518DiVA: diva2:1089149
Public defence
2017-05-19, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Norrköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, KAW 2011.0050Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , GMT14-0058
Available from: 2017-05-04 Created: 2017-04-18 Last updated: 2017-05-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. An Organic Mixed Ion–Electron Conductor for Power Electronics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Organic Mixed Ion–Electron Conductor for Power Electronics
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2016 (English)In: Advanced Science, ISSN 2198-3844, 1500305Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A mixed ionic–electronic conductor based on nanofibrillated cellulose composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythio­phene):­poly(styrene-sulfonate) along with high boiling point solvents is demonstrated in bulky electrochemical devices. The high electronic and ionic conductivities of the resulting nanopaper are exploited in devices which exhibit record values for the charge storage capacitance (1F) in supercapacitors and transconductance (1S) in electrochemical transistors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2016
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123225 (URN)10.1002/advs.201500305 (DOI)000370336500011 ()
Note

Funding agencies:  Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation [KAW 2011.0050]; Onnesjo Foundation; Advanced Functional Materials Center at Linkoping University; Stiftelsen for strategisk forskning (SSF); RISE Research Institutes of Sweden; U.S. National Science Foundation [DMR-12

Available from: 2015-12-08 Created: 2015-12-08 Last updated: 2017-04-18
2. Thermoelectric Polymers and their Elastic Aerogels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermoelectric Polymers and their Elastic Aerogels
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2016 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 28, no 22, 4556-4562 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electronically conducting polymers constitute an emerging class of materials for novel electronics, such as printed electronics and flexible electronics. Their properties have been further diversified to introduce elasticity, which has opened new possibility for "stretchable" electronics. Recent discoveries demonstrate that conducting polymers have thermoelectric properties with a low thermal conductivity, as well as tunable Seebeck coefficients - which is achieved by modulating their electrical conductivity via simple redox reactions. Using these thermoelectric properties, all-organic flexible thermoelectric devices, such as temperature sensors, heat flux sensors, and thermoelectric generators, are being developed. In this article we discuss the combination of the two emerging fields: stretchable electronics and polymer thermoelectrics. The combination of elastic and thermoelectric properties seems to be unique for conducting polymers, and difficult to achieve with inorganic thermoelectric materials. We introduce the basic concepts, and state of the art knowledge, about the thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers, and illustrate the use of elastic thermoelectric conducting polymer aerogels that could be employed as temperature and pressure sensors in an electronic-skin.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2016
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129660 (URN)10.1002/adma.201505364 (DOI)000377123500029 ()26836440 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|European Research Council (ERC) [307596]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Energy Agency; Advanced Functional Materials Center at Linkoping University; Research Institute of Sweden (RISE)

Available from: 2016-06-27 Created: 2016-06-23 Last updated: 2017-04-18
3. Patterning and Conductivity Modulation of Conductive Polymers by UV Light Exposure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patterning and Conductivity Modulation of Conductive Polymers by UV Light Exposure
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2016 (English)In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 26, no 38, 6950-6960 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel patterning technique of conductive polymers produced by vapor phase polymerization is demonstrated. The method involves exposing an oxidant film to UV light which changes the local chemical environment of the oxidant and subsequently the polymerization kinetics. This procedure is used to control the conductivity in the conjugated polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): tosylate by more than six orders of magnitude in addition to producing high-resolution patterns and optical gradients. The mechanism behind the modulation in the polymerization kinetics by UV light irradiation as well as the properties of the resulting polymer are investigated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2016
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133122 (URN)10.1002/adfm.201601794 (DOI)000386159300010 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation [KAW 2011.0050, KAW 2014.0041, KAW 2012.0302]

Available from: 2016-12-12 Created: 2016-12-09 Last updated: 2017-08-03

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