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Sharing of photobionts in sympatric populations of Thamnolia and Cetraria lichens: evidence from high-throughput sequencing
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. (Johannesson Lab)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5235-6461
Icelandic Institute of Natural History, Borgir Nordurslod, Iceland.
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2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 4406Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, we explored the diversity of green algal symbionts (photobionts) in sympatric populations of the cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungi Thamnolia and Cetraria. We sequenced with both Sanger and Ion Torrent High-Throughput Sequencing technologies the photobiont ITS-region of 30 lichen thalli from two islands: Iceland and Öland. While Sanger recovered just one photobiont genotype from each thallus, the Ion Torrent data recovered 10–18 OTUs for each pool of 5 lichen thalli, suggesting that individual lichens can contain heterogeneous photobiont populations. Both methods showed evidence for photobiont sharing between Thamnolia and Cetraria on Iceland. In contrast, our data suggest that on Öland the two mycobionts associate with distinct photobiont communities, with few shared OTUs revealed by Ion Torrent sequencing. Furthermore, by comparing our sequences with public data, we identified closely related photobionts from geographically distant localities. Taken together, we suggest that the photobiont composition in Thamnolia and Cetraria results from both photobiont-mycobiont codispersal and local acquisition during mycobiont establishment and/or lichen growth. We hypothesize that this is a successful strategy for lichens to be flexible in the use of the most adapted photobiont for the environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 8, article id 4406
National Category
Ecology Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-319634DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-22470-yISI: 000427241500007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-319634DiVA, id: diva2:1087348
Funder
Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC), b2013277The Royal Swedish Academy of SciencesHelge Ax:son Johnsons stiftelse Lars Hierta Memorial FoundationSwedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC), b2013277
Note

Title in thesis list of papers: Differential sharing of photobionts in sympatric populations of Thamnolia and Cetraria lichens: evidence from next generation sequencing

Available from: 2017-04-06 Created: 2017-04-06 Last updated: 2018-05-31Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The puzzle of lichen symbiosis: Pieces from Thamnolia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The puzzle of lichen symbiosis: Pieces from Thamnolia
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Symbiosis brought important evolutionary novelties to life on Earth. Lichens, the symbiotic entities formed by fungi, photosynthetic organisms and bacteria, represent an example of a successful adaptation in surviving hostile environments. Yet many aspects of the lichen symbiosis remain unexplored. This thesis aims at bringing insights into lichen biology and the importance of symbiosis in adaptation. I am using as model system a successful colonizer of tundra and alpine environments, the worm lichens Thamnolia, which seem to only reproduce vegetatively through symbiotic propagules. When the genetic architecture of the mating locus of the symbiotic fungal partner was analyzed with genomic and transcriptomic data, a sexual self-incompatible life style was revealed. However, a screen of the mating types ratios across natural populations detected only one of the mating types, suggesting that Thamnolia has no potential for sexual reproduction because of lack of mating partners. Genetic data based on molecular markers revealed the existence of three morphologically cryptic Thamnolia lineages. One lineage had a clear recombination structure and was found in the tundra region of Siberia, shorelines of Scandinavia, and Aleutian Islands. The other lineage was allopatric with the previous, and was highly clonal; only two haplotypes were found across the alpine region of central and southeastern Europe. However, the third lineage was sympatric with the other two, had a worldwide distribution, and although highly clonal, showed a recombinant population structure. Our data could not reveal whether the signs of recombination resulted from rare recombination events due to the extreme low frequency of the other mating type or ancestral variation before the loss of sexual reproduction. However, investigation of Thamnolia’s green algal population showed that in different localities, different algal genotypes were associated with the same fungal genotype. Furthermore, data suggest that Thamnolia carried several algal genotypes within its thalli and shared them with other distantly related but ecologically similar fungal species.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2017. p. 62
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1503
Keywords
Thamnolia, lichen, symbiosis, photobiont, mycobiont, phylogeography, MAT-loci, barcoding, NGS, genome, transcriptome, Ice Age
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Systematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-319639 (URN)978-91-554-9887-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-06-01, Lindhalsalen, EBC, Norbyvägen 14, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2017-05-08 Created: 2017-04-06 Last updated: 2017-05-29

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