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Serum Fatty Acids, Desaturase Activities and Abdominal Obesity - A Population-Based Study of 60-Year Old Men and Women
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8620-4586
Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Cardiovasc Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
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2017 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 1, e0170684Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abdominal obesity is a key contributor of metabolic disease. Recent trials suggest that dietary fat quality affects abdominal fat content, where palmitic acid and linoleic acid influence abdominal obesity differently, while effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are less studied. Also, fatty acid desaturation may be altered in abdominal obesity. We aimed to investigate cross-sectional associations of serum fatty acids and desaturases with abdominal obesity prevalence in a population-based cohort study. Serum cholesteryl ester fatty acids composition was measured by gas chromatography in 60-year old men (n = 1883) and women (n = 2015). Cross-sectional associations of fatty acids with abdominal obesity prevalence and anthropometric measures (e.g., sagittal abdominal diameter) were evaluated in multivariable-adjusted logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Similar models were employed to investigate relations between desaturase activities (estimated by fatty acid ratios) and abdominal obesity. In logistic regression analyses, palmitic acid, stearoyl-CoA- desaturase and Delta 6-desaturase indices were associated with abdominal obesity; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for highest versus lowest quartiles were 1.45 (1.19-1.76), 4.06 (3.27-5.05), and 3.07 (2.51-3.75), respectively. Linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, docohexaenoic acid, and Delta 5-desaturase were inversely associated with abdominal obesity; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals): 0.39 (0.32-0.48), 0.74 (0.61-0.89), 0.76 (0.62-0.93), and 0.40 (0.33-0.49), respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid was not associated with abdominal obesity. Similar results were obtained from linear regression models evaluating associations with different anthropometric measures. Sex-specific and linear associations were mainly observed for n3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, while associations of the other exposures were generally non-linear and similar across sexes. In accordance with findings from short-term trials, abdominal obesity was more common among individuals with relatively high proportions of palmitic acid, whilst the contrary was true for linoleic acid. Further trials should examine the potential role of linoleic acid and its main dietary source, vegetable oils, in abdominal obesity prevention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE , 2017. Vol. 12, no 1, e0170684
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-319131DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170684ISI: 000396176100074PubMedID: 28125662OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-319131DiVA: diva2:1086278
Available from: 2017-03-31 Created: 2017-03-31 Last updated: 2017-08-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Dietary Intake, Fatty Acid Biomarkers, and Abdominal Obesity: Population-Based Observational Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dietary Intake, Fatty Acid Biomarkers, and Abdominal Obesity: Population-Based Observational Studies
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis was to investigate the associations between fatty acid (FA) biomarkers, carbohydrate intake, and abdominal obesity (AO) and related anthropometric measures in a population-based cohort of men and women in Stockholm County. The overall hypothesis was that dietary fat quality assessed by serum and adipose tissue FA composition, and dietary intake of especially carbohydrates is associated with AO. FA composition was assessed by liquid gas chromatography, and AO was measured as waist circumference (WC), waist hip ratio (WHR) and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD). Dietary intake was assessed by 7-day food records.

Papers I, II, III, and IV were all observational studies based on a Swedish population in Stockholm County (n=5460). A sub-cohort of only men (n=301) was included in Papers II, III, and IV.

In Paper I, serum proportions of the polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), linoleic acid (LA) (18:2n6), was inversely associated with AO in both men and women, whereas a positive association was observed between the saturated FA (SFA), palmitic acid (PA) (16:0) and AO measures. These findings support recent interventional studies suggesting that a higher relative intake of PUFA (LA) from vegetable oils as compared with 16:0 is associated with decreased abdominal adiposity.

In Paper II, we investigated whether biomarkers of dietary fat quality were related to the corresponding FA intake from fat-rich foods reported in a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Serum proportions of the long-chain n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) were higher among men with higher total fish intake. Serum LA was higher among men who reported a consumption of more than 5 g/d of margarine. Absolute agreement between intakes assessed with FFQ of 60YO and 7-day food record of "Kost och Metabola syndromet"/"Diet and the Metabolic syndrome" (KOMET) was highest for alcohol, total fish, and eggs. Weighted Kappa statistics revealed the strongest agreement for alcohol, margarine, and fruits.

In Paper III, carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with 16:0 in serum phospholipids (PL). Disaccharide and alcohol intake was positively and non-linearly associated with palmitoleic acid (16:1) and stearoyl-CoA-desaturase (SCD) activity in PL. Alcohol was consistently associated with higher SFA and monounsaturated FA (MUFA).

Results of Paper IV indicated that total carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with measures of AO and central fat distribution, WHR and SAD, respectively. Likewise, monosaccharide intake was associated with lower AO. In contrast, alcohol intake was associated with AO prevalence and all anthropometric measurements.

In conclusion, serum SFA (palmitic acid) was positively associated with AO, whereas n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) was associated with lower AO. High intake of total carbohydrate and monosaccharides were associated with lower AO. Overall, these results support a beneficial role on adiposity of diets that are higher in polyunsaturated fat (vegetable oils) and total carbohydrates compared with saturated fat.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2017. 47 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1349
Keyword
abdominal obesity, fatty acid biomarker, dietary intake
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Food, Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-327278 (URN)978-91-513-0024-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-09-25, Rudbeck conference, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 20, 752 37 Uppsala, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2017-09-06 Created: 2017-08-08 Last updated: 2017-09-08

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