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Locating charging infrastructure for electric buses in Stockholm
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2896-8841
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
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2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 78, no 2017, p. 183-200Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Charging infrastructure requirements are being largely debated in the context of urban energy planning for transport electrification. As electric vehicles are gaining momentum, the issue of locating and securing the availability, efficiency and effectiveness of charging infrastructure becomes a complex question that needs to be addressed. This paper presents the structure and application of a model developed for optimizing the distribution of charging infrastructure for electric buses in the urban context, and tests the model for the bus network of Stockholm. The major public bus transport hubs connecting to the train and subway system show the highest concentration of locations chosen by the model for charging station installation. The costs estimated are within an expected range when comparing to the annual bus public transport costs in Stockholm. The model could be adapted for various urban contexts to promptly assist in the transition to fossil-free bus transport. The total costs for the operation of a partially electrified bus system in both optimization cases considered (cost and energy) differ only marginally from the costs for a 100% biodiesel system. This indicates that lower fuel costs for electric buses can balance the high investment costs incurred in building charging infrastructure, while achieving a reduction of up to 51% in emissions and up to 34% in energy use in the bus fleet.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017. Vol. 78, no 2017, p. 183-200
Keywords [en]
electric bus, charging infrastructure, optimization, Mixed Integer Linear Programing, public transport, Sweden
National Category
Energy Systems Energy Engineering Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-204836DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.03.005ISI: 000399858000013Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85015070278OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-204836DiVA, id: diva2:1086124
Projects
Wireless Bus Stop Charging
Funder
Integrated Transport Research Lab (ITRL)
Note

QC 20170407

Available from: 2017-03-31 Created: 2017-03-31 Last updated: 2018-04-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Towards electrified public bus transport: The case of Stockholm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards electrified public bus transport: The case of Stockholm
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis addresses the challenge of road transport electrification using a systems approach for the particular context of Stockholm’s public transport system. The objective is to identify the benefits of large-scale bus electrification on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions, as well as the cost and planning considerations required for achieving such a shift. Quantitative and qualitative methods are deployed for answering the research questions, including the development and use of an optimisation model, survey research, and interviews. 

The results of the optimisation model developed for this thesis show that an optimal system configuration is obtained with a combination of electricity and biodiesel. The high energy efficiency of electric buses would lead to a significant reduction of energy consumption in Stockholm, even if not all bus routes in the network are electrified. Although larger battery capacities could support the electrification of more bus routes, this does not necessarily lead to lower environmental impact. In any case, electricity from renewable sources should be used to maximise emission reductions. 

The results also show that the annual costs necessary to invest in electric buses can be balanced by lower fuel costs. An effective utilisation of the charging infrastructure is of high priority in order to justify the costs of the required investments. The model results confirm the benefits of creating a dense initial network of charging stations in the inner city’s public transport hubs, which would facilitate the electrification of multiple routes and high infrastructure utilisation at lower costs. 

The survey and interviews with stakeholders indicate that multiple issues affect the choice of charging technology, not just costs. Compatibility, reliability, bus dwell time, as well as weather conditions and visual impact are some of the additional aspects taken into account. The introduction of electricity tax exemption for electric buses, the expansion of the electric bus premium to include private stakeholders, as well as the expansion of infrastructure investment subsidy programmes are among the policy instruments suggested for assisting a faster introduction of electric buses into Stockholm’s public transport system. 

Although the focus is on Stockholm, the conclusions of this work can be applicable to other cities in Sweden and around the world, which also face the challenge of making public transport a more sustainable option.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 77
Series
TRITA-ECS Report ; TRITA-ECS Report 18/02
Keywords
electric bus; charging infrastructure; optimisation; public transport; fossil-free; transport planning; Sweden
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-226518 (URN)978-91-7729-742-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-05-16, E2, Lindstedtsvägen 3, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyThe Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels (f3)Integrated Transport Research Lab (ITRL)
Available from: 2018-04-19 Created: 2018-04-18 Last updated: 2018-05-15Bibliographically approved

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