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Extensions for Distributed Moving Base Driving Simulators
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Modern vehicles are complex systems. Different design stages for such a complex system include evaluation using models and submodels, hardware-in-the-loop systems and complete vehicles. Once a vehicle is delivered to the market evaluation continues by the public. One kind of tool that can be used during many stages of a vehicle lifecycle is driving simulators.

The use of driving simulators with a human driver is commonly focused on driver behavior. In a high fidelity moving base driving simulator it is possible to provide realistic and repetitive driving situations using distinctive features such as: physical modelling of driven vehicle, a moving base, a physical cabin interface and an audio and visual representation of the driving environment. A desired but difficult goal to achieve using a moving base driving simulator is to have behavioral validity. In other words, \A driver in a moving base driving simulator should have the same driving behavior as he or she would have during the same driving task in a real vehicle.".

In this thesis the focus is on high fidelity moving base driving simulators. The main target is to improve the behavior validity or to maintain behavior validity while adding complexity to the simulator. One main assumption in this thesis is that systems closer to the final product provide better accuracy and are perceived better if properly integrated. Thus, the approach in this thesis is to try to ease incorporation of such systems using combinations of the methods hardware-in-the-loop and distributed simulation. Hardware-in-the-loop is a method where hardware is interfaced into a software controlled environment/simulation. Distributed simulation is a method where parts of a simulation at physically different locations are connected together. For some simulator laboratories distributed simulation is the only feasible option since some hardware cannot be moved in an easy way.

Results presented in this thesis show that a complete vehicle or hardware-in-the-loop test laboratory can successfully be connected to a moving base driving simulator. Further, it is demonstrated that using a framework for distributed simulation eases communication and integration due to standardized interfaces. One identified potential problem is complexity in interface wrappers when integrating hardware-in-the-loop in a distributed simulation framework. From this aspect, it is important to consider the model design and the intersections between software and hardware models. Another important issue discussed is the increased delay in overhead time when using a framework for distributed simulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017. , 18 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1777
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Computer Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136146DOI: 10.3384/lic.diva-136146ISBN: 9789176855249 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-136146DiVA: diva2:1085716
Presentation
2017-05-12, Alan Turing, hus E, Campus Valla, Linköping University, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
VINNOVA, 2011-03994
Available from: 2017-03-30 Created: 2017-03-30 Last updated: 2017-04-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Vehicle Powertrain Test Bench Co-Simulation with a Moving Base Simulator Using a Pedal Robot
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vehicle Powertrain Test Bench Co-Simulation with a Moving Base Simulator Using a Pedal Robot
2013 (English)In: SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems, ISSN 1946-4614, E-ISSN 1946-4622, Vol. 6, no 1, 169-179 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To evaluate driver perception of a vehicle powertrain a moving base simulator is a well-established technique. We are connecting the moving base simulator Sim III, at the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute with a newly built chassis dynamometer at Vehicular Systems, Linköping University. The purpose of the effort is to enhance fidelity of moving base simulators by letting drivers experience an actual powertrain. At the same time technicians are given a new tool for evaluating powertrain solutions in a controlled environment. As a first step the vehicle model from the chassis dynamometer system has been implemented in Sim III. Interfacing software was developed and an optical fiber covering the physical distance of 500 m between the facilities is used to connect the systems. Further, a pedal robot has been developed that uses two linear actuators pressing the accelerator and brake pedals. The pedal robot uses feedback loops on accelerator position or brake cylinder pressure and is controlled via an UDP interface. Results from running the complete setup showed expected functionality and we are successful in performing a driving mission based on real road topography data. Vehicle acceleration and general driving feel was perceived as realistic by the test subjects while braking still needs improvements. The pedal robot construction enables use of a large set of cars available on the market and except for mounting the brake pressure sensor the time to switch vehicle is approximately 30 minutes.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-92215 (URN)10.4271/2013-01-0410 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-05-08 Created: 2013-05-08 Last updated: 2017-04-07Bibliographically approved
2. Models for Distributed Real-Time Simulation in a Vehicle Co-Simulator Setup
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Models for Distributed Real-Time Simulation in a Vehicle Co-Simulator Setup
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Equation-Based Object-Oriented Modeling Languages and Tools; April 19, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK / [ed] Henrik Nilsson, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, Vol. 84, 131-139 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A car model in Modelica has been developed to be used in a new setup for distributed real-time simulation where a moving base car simulator is connected with a real car in a chassis dynamometer via a 500m fiber optic communication link. The new co-simulator set-up can be used in a number of configurations where hardware in the loop can be interchanged with software in the loop. The models presented in this paper are the basic blocks chosen for modeling the system in the context of a distributed real-time simulation; estimating parameters for the powertrain model; the choice of numeric solver; and the interaction with the solver for real-time properties.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013
Series
Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3686 (print), 1650-3740 (online) ; 84
Keyword
Modelica; real-time; distributed; communications link
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118994 (URN)978-91-7519-621-3 (ISBN)978-91-7519-617-6 (ISBN)
Conference
The 5th International Workshop on Equation-Based Object-Oriented Modeling Languages and Tools, April 19, University of Nottingham, Nottingham; UK
Available from: 2015-06-05 Created: 2015-06-05 Last updated: 2017-04-07Bibliographically approved
3. A Driving Simulation Platform using Distributed Vehicle Simulators and HLA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Driving Simulation Platform using Distributed Vehicle Simulators and HLA
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the DSC 2015 Europe: Driving Simulation Conference & Exhibition / [ed] Heinrich Bülthoff, Andras Kemeny and Paolo Pretto, 2015, 123-130 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Modern vehicles are complex systems consisting of an increasing large multitude of components that operate together. While functional verification on individual components is important, it is also important to test components within a driving environment, both from a functional perspective and from a driver perspective. One proven way for testing is vehicle simulators and in this work the main goals have been to increase flexibility and scalability by introducing a distributed driving simulator platform.

As an example, consider a workflow where a developer can go from a desktop simulation to an intermediate driving simulator to a high fidelity driving simulator with Hardware-In-the-Loop systems close to a finished vehicle in an easy way. To accomplish this, a distributed simulation architecture was designed and implemented that divides a driving simulator environment into four major entities with well-defined interfaces, using HLA as the method of communication. This platform was evaluated on two aspects, flexibility/scalability and timing performance. Results show that increased flexibility and scalability was achieved when using a distributed simulation platform. It is also shown that latency was only slightly increased when using HLA.

Keyword
Test, Vehicle, Engine, Performance, Simulator (driving), Computer
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 96 Road: Vehicle operating and management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136153 (URN)9783981309935 (ISBN)
Conference
Driving Simulation Conference 2015. 16-18 september 2015, Tübingen, Germany
Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2017-03-31 Last updated: 2017-04-06Bibliographically approved

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