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Mesh Networking in Low Power Location Systems (Swarm)
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
2016 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Today, Internet of Things (IoT) is the driving force in making operations and processes smart. Indoor localization is such an application of IoT that has proven the potential of location awareness in countless scenarios, from mines to industries to even people.

nanotron Technologies GmbH, based in Berlin, is one of the pioneers in low power location systems. nanotron's embedded location platform delivers location-awareness for safety and productivity solutions across industrial and consumer markets. The platform consists of chips, modules and software that enable precise real-time positioning and concurrent wireless communication. The ubiquitous proliferation of interoperable platforms is creating the locationaware Internet of Things.

One of their product families is swarm. A swarm is a group of independent radios or nodes which facilitates the nodes to communicate with their immediate neighboring nodes to get each other’s positions. This position information is collected by one of the nodes (called gateway) and delivered to the host controller. However, the nodes need to be in range to communicate. The company wants to improve the range of communication and for that purpose; I am implementing a routing protocol with some additional changes for swarm, to allow out-of-range nodes to communicate via intermediate neighbors. This is called mesh networking which would result in so-called ‘mesh’ of nodes and would increase the range of swarm operation that could be beneficial in achieving uniform connectivity throughout large spaces without needing excessive number of gateways. This is of high importance because a node acting as gateway should be ‘awake’ all the time so that it can collect data efficiently, while the other nodes can beon power saving mode. Mesh networking will allow data collection even with fewer such gateways thereby being energy efficient while facilitating larger range of communication. This was made possible by adding the feature of allowing nodes to store messages for their neighbors in case they are asleep and wake up for the neighbors to transmit data. It is done using a schedule that is built and updated in addition to the routing protocol.

The purpose of this thesis is to justify the implemented mesh routing protocol for swarm among all the other routing protocols available. It also focuses on the modifications and improvements that were devised to make the protocol tailored for how swarm works and to support Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) on top of it, at a later stage. MQTT is a lightweight messaging protocol that provides resource-constrained network clients with a simple way to distribute information. It uses a publish/subscribe communication pattern and is used for machine-to-machine (M2M) communication and plays an important role in the Internet of Things. The implemented routing protocol also takes into consideration, the sleeping nodes, route maintenance through advertisements, hierarchical nature of mesh to make data collection more efficient, message formats keeping in mind the memory shortage, etc. The document gives a thorough overview of concepts, design implementation, improvements and tests to prove the importance of mesh networking in existing swarm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. , p. 83
Series
TRITA-ICT-EX ; 2016:159
Keywords [en]
WSN, routing, nanotron technologies, indoor positioning, swarm, mesh networking
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-204558OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-204558DiVA, id: diva2:1085215
Subject / course
Computer Science
Educational program
Master of Science - Embedded Systems
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2017-03-28 Created: 2017-03-28 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved

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