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ARSENIC REMOVAL BY PHYTOFILTRATION AND SILICON TREATMENT: A POTENTIAL SOLUTION FOR LOWERING ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN FOOD CROPS
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2715-2931
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Use of arsenic-rich groundwater for crop irrigation can increase the arsenic (As) content in food crops and act as a carcinogen, compromising human health. Using aquatic plant based phytofiltration is a potential eco-technique for removing arsenic from water. The aquatic moss species Warnstorfia fluitans grows naturally in mining areas in northern Sweden, where high concentrations of arsenic occur in lakes and rivers. This species was selected as a model for field, climate chamber and greenhouse studies on factors governing arsenic removal and arsenic phytofiltration of irrigation water. The arsenic and silicon (Si) concentrations in soil, water and plant samples were measured by AAS (atomic absorption spectrophotometry), while arsenite and arsenate species were determined using AAS combined with high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an anion exchange column. The arsenic content in grains of hybrid and local aromatic rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars with differing arsenic accumulation factor (AF) values was investigated in an arsenic hotspot in Bangladesh. The results showed that arsenic AF was important in identifying arsenic-safer rice cultivars for growing in an arsenic hotspot. The study based on silicon effect on arsenic uptake in lettuce showed that arsenic accumulation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) could be reduced by silicon addition. The aquatic moss had good phytofiltration capacity, with fast arsenic removal of up to 82% from a medium with low arsenic concentration (1 µM). Extraction analysis showed that inorganic arsenic species were firmly bound inside moss tissue. Absorption of arsenic was relatively higher than adsorption in the moss. Regarding effects of different abiotic factors, plants were stressed at low pH (pH 2.5) and arsenic removal rate was lower from the medium, while arsenic efflux occurred in arsenate-treated medium at low (12°C) and high (30°C) temperature regimes. Besides these factors, low oxygenation increased the efficiency of arsenic removal from the medium. Finally, combining W. fluitans as a phytofilter with a lettuce crop on a constructed wetland significantly reduced the arsenic content in edible parts (leaves) of lettuce. Thus W. fluitans has great potential for use as an arsenic phytofilter in temperate regions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , p. 49
Series
TRITA-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 2017:02
Keywords [en]
aquatic moss, grain, rice, lettuce, macrophyte, phytoremediation, speciation, temperature, oxygenation, wetland.
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Other Environmental Engineering Botany Bio Materials Inorganic Chemistry
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-203995ISBN: 978-91-7729-332-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-203995DiVA, id: diva2:1083884
Public defence
2017-04-20, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20170323

Available from: 2017-03-23 Created: 2017-03-22 Last updated: 2017-03-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Arsenic uptake by plants and possible phytoremediation applications: A brief overview
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Arsenic uptake by plants and possible phytoremediation applications: A brief overview
Show others...
2012 (English)In: Environmental Chemistry Letters, ISSN 1610-3653, E-ISSN 1610-3661, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 217-224Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This review focuses the behaviour of arsenic in plant-soil and plant-water systems, arsenic-plant cell interactions, phytoremediation, and biosorption. Arsenate and arsenite uptake by plants varies in different environment conditions. An eco-friendly and low-cost method for arsenic removal from soil-water system is phytoremediation, in which living plants are used to remove arsenic from the environment or to render it less toxic. Several factors such as soil redox conditions, arsenic speciation in soils, and the presence of phosphates play a major role. Translocation factor is the important feature for categorising plants for their remediation ability. Phytoremediation techniques often do not take into account the biosorption processes of living plants and plant litter. In biosorption techniques, contaminants can be removed by a biological substrate, as a sorbent, bacteria, fungi, algae, or vascular plants surfaces based on passive binding of arsenic or other contaminants on cell wall surfaces containing special active functional groups. Evaluation of the current literature suggests that understanding molecular level processes, and kinetic aspects in phytoremediation using advanced analytical techniques are essential for designing phytoremediation technologies with improved, predictable remedial success. Hence, more efforts are needed on addressing the molecular level behaviour of arsenic in plants, kinetics of uptake, and transfer of arsenic in plants with flowing waters, remobilisation through decay, possible methylation, and volatilisation.

Keywords
Arsenic toxicity, Bioremediation, Biosorption, Translocation, Bioconcentration, Bioaccumulation
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-84261 (URN)10.1007/s10311-011-0349-8 (DOI)000307547000002 ()2-s2.0-84865403564 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20120921

Available from: 2012-02-13 Created: 2012-02-13 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Influence of silicon on arsenic uptake and toxicity in lettuce
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of silicon on arsenic uptake and toxicity in lettuce
2015 (English)In: Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality / Angewandte Botanik, ISSN 1613-9216, E-ISSN 1439-040X, Vol. 88, p. 234-240Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lettuce grown in soil is found to contain high concentrations of arsenic (As). This paper investigates the uptake and speciation of As in lettuce as well as the influence of silicon (Si) on As uptake, since Si may decrease it. Lettuce plants were cultivated in nutrient solution containing arsenite or arsenate with or without silicate. The uptake and distribution of As between roots and shoots, As accu-mulation in cell walls, As speciation, and toxic effects on growth were analysed. Results indicate that arsenite was more toxic to lettuce than was arsenate. Silicate decreased arsenate toxicity but had little effect on arsenite toxicity. In contrast, Si decreased arsenite uptake more than arsenate uptake. The concentration of arsenate was higher than that of arsenite in the plants independent of the As species added. When arsenate was added, the As concentration in shoots was half of that in the roots and this distribution did not change with Si addition. When arsenite was added, approximately 10% of As was found in the shoots and 90% in the roots; this pattern changed in the presence of Si, and As became evenly distributed in the plant. In both roots and shoots, approximately 40% of the As was found in the cell wall fraction; when arsenite was added, the presence of Si increased this fraction to 47%, but only in the shoots. The extraction efficiency when analysing the As species was lower in shoots than in roots, especially in the presence of arsenite and Si. The opposite was found for As concentration in pellets after extraction. This indicated variation in the binding strength of arsenite and arsenate between roots and shoots and between Si-and non-Si-treated plants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Druckerei und Verlag Liddy Halm, 2015
Keywords
arsenate, arsenic, concentration (composition), dose-response relationship, leafy vegetable, nutrient availability, nutrient uptake, root system, shoot, silicon, soil nutrient, solution, toxicity test, Lactuca
National Category
Plant Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-181229 (URN)10.5073/JABFQ.2015.088.034 (DOI)000364715500005 ()2-s2.0-84945185903 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160208

Available from: 2016-02-08 Created: 2016-01-29 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
3. Arsenic concentrations in local aromatic and high-yielding hybrid rice cultivars and the potential health risk: A study in an arsenic hotspot
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Arsenic concentrations in local aromatic and high-yielding hybrid rice cultivars and the potential health risk: A study in an arsenic hotspot
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 189, no 184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The presence of high levels of arsenic (As) in rice fields has negative effects on the health ofthose consuming rice as their subsistence food. This study determined the variation in total Asconcentration in local aromatic rice (LAR) (kalijira) and two high yielding varieties (HYVs)(BRRI dhan 32 and BRRI dhan 28) grown in paddy fields in Matlab, Bangladesh, an As hotspot with elevated As levels in groundwater. Mature rice grain samples and soil samples were collected from different paddy fields and the As concentrations in both the de-husked grains and the husks of the three rice cultivars were analysed to identify the safest of the threecultivars for human consumption. The results showed that the total As concentration washigher (0.09-0.21 mg As kg-1) in the de-husked grains of LAR than in the husks, while theopposite was found for the HYV rice. Moreover, the As concentration in soil samples was 2-to 5-fold higher for the LAR than for the HYVs, but the As accumulation factor (AF) waslower in the LAR (0.2-0.4%) than in the HYVs (0.9-1%). Thus, LAR can be considered thesafest of the three cultivars for human consumption owing to its low AF value. Furthermore,due to the low AF, growing LAR instead of HYVs in soils with slightly elevated As levelscould help improve the food safety level in the food chain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Publishing Company, 2017
Keywords
Aromatic rice, Arsenic, As uptake, Accumulation factor, Bangladesh, food chain, Husk, soil
National Category
Agricultural Science, Forestry and Fisheries Biological Sciences Inorganic Chemistry Health Sciences
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-204154 (URN)10.1007/s10661-017-5889-3 (DOI)000398714200050 ()2-s2.0-85016153586 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Sida contribution no. 73000854, 2007–2015
Note

Qc 20170406

Available from: 2017-03-24 Created: 2017-03-24 Last updated: 2017-05-09Bibliographically approved
4. Phytofiltration of arsenic by aquatic moss (Warnstorfia fluitans)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phytofiltration of arsenic by aquatic moss (Warnstorfia fluitans)
2017 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work investigates whether aquatic moss (Warnstorfia fluitans) originating from an arsenic (As)-contaminated wetland close to a mine tailings impoundment may be used for phytofiltration of As. The aim was to elucidate the capacity of W. fluitans to remove As from arsenite and arsenate contaminated water, how nutrients affect the As uptake and the proportion of As adsorption and absorption by the moss plant, which consists of dead and living parts.

Arsenic removal from 0, 1, or 10% Hoagland nutrient solution containing 0–100 μM arsenate was followed over 192 h, and the total As in aquatic moss after treatment was analysed. The uptake and speciation of As in moss cultivated in water containing 10 μM arsenate or arsenite were examined as As uptake in living (absorption + adsorption) and dead (adsorption) plant parts.

Results indicated that W. fluitans removed up to 82% of As from the water within one hour when 1 μM arsenate was added in the absence of nutrients. The removal time increased with greater nutrient and As concentrations. Up to 100 μM As had no toxic effect on the plant biomass. Both arsenite and arsenate were removed from the solution to similar extents and, independent of the As species added, more arsenate than arsenite was found in the plant. Of the As taken up, over 90% was firmly bound to the tissue, a possible mechanism for resisting high As concentrations. Arsenic was both absorbed and adsorbed by the moss, and twice as much As was found in living parts as in dead moss tissue. This study revealed that W. fluitans has potential to serve as a phytofilter for removing As from As-contaminated water without displaying any toxic effects of the metalloid.

Keywords
Absorption, Adsorption, Aquatic moss, Arsenic uptake, Arsenic removal, Arsenic speciation
National Category
Plant Biotechnology Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use Environmental Management Bioremediation
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering; Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-204401 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2017.11.038 (DOI)000431158900112 ()2-s2.0-85034056389 (Scopus ID)
Note

This work was funded by Environment Foundation (Miljöfonden) of the Swedish Engineers’ Association.

QC 20170406

Available from: 2017-03-24 Created: 2017-03-24 Last updated: 2018-05-15Bibliographically approved
5. Effect of pH, temperature, and oxygenation on arsenic phytofiltration by aquatic moss (Warnstorfia fluitans)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of pH, temperature, and oxygenation on arsenic phytofiltration by aquatic moss (Warnstorfia fluitans)
2018 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2213-3437, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 3918-3925Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Phytofiltration of arsenic (As)-contaminated water could reduce As in irrigation and surface water. In a previous study, we found that the aquatic moss Warnstorfia fluitans efficiently removes arsenic from water contaminated with arsenate and arsenite. This work investigates how factors such as pH, temperature, and oxygenation influence As removal, since these factors vary in the environment. Plants were grown in a medium with 5 or 10 μM arsenite or arsenate and: 1) a pH of 2.5, 6.5, or 9.5; 2) a temperature of 12, 20, or 30 °C; and 3) oxygenation of <2 or 13 mg O2 L−1. Removal of As was monitored over 48–96 h, and the content and speciation of As were analysed in moss plants at the termination of the experiments. Results indicate that As removal was faster in arsenite than arsenate solutions. Arsenic removal from arsenite solution was the fastest, i.e., 80–90% within 2 h, at pH 6.5 and 9.5 and at 20 and 30 °C. At pH 2.5, plants were stressed and the net removal was low throughout the treatment period. Arsenic removal was more efficient at low than high oxygenation levels. Besides this, no As net efflux process was seen in the water system except after 48 h in arsenate-treated medium in high-temperature (30 °C) regimes. Regardless of As species added, usually only arsenite was found in the plants after treatment. Most internal As, i.e., 95% in the arsenate and 85% in the arsenite treatments, was firmly bound to the tissue. The study found that at 20 °C, neutral pH, and low oxygenation, this aquatic moss has great potential for As phytofiltration.

Keywords
Arsenic removal, Aquatic moss, pH, Phytofiltration, Oxygenation, Temperature, Phytoremediation
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-204402 (URN)10.1016/j.jece.2018.05.044 (DOI)000444046700014 ()2-s2.0-85048213199 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

QC 20170406

Available from: 2017-03-24 Created: 2017-03-24 Last updated: 2018-09-27Bibliographically approved

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