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National Appropriateness of International Climate Policy Frameworks in India, Brazil, and South Africa
Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

How does the international climate policy frameworks influence the domestic institutional responses to climate mitigation in emerging economies? And how, in turn, do domestic institutions and politics in emerging economies influence the fate of international climate policy frameworks? The thesis provides answers to these questions by studying domestic engagements with Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in three emerging economies – India, Brazil, and South Africa. The thesis specifically studies how these engagements were influenced by the domestic institutional context provided by national climate policy, norms, and institutional capacity in the three countries. Drawing upon the variations in the engagements with nationally appropriate mitigation actions, made visible by use of the policy cycle as a heuristic device, the thesis informs the implementation of another nascent, yet prevalent, international climate policy framework – Nationally Determined Contributions. The thesis identifies how engagements with nationally appropriate mitigation actions varied in India, Brazil, and South Africa in agenda-setting, policy formulation, decision-making, implementation, and evaluation. In cases where international support is considered crucial for taking mitigation actions, external factors such as lack of clarity on definitional aspects and availability of international support can hamper the prospects of such frameworks at the agenda-setting and policy formulation stages. Efforts to engage with these frameworks under this uncertainty are held back by non-decisions, overriding national climate policy, as well as by uneven inter-ministerial coordination. The thesis argues that successful implementation of upcoming Nationally Determined  Contributions will be influenced by a country’s ability to align them with its national climate policy, localization of the transnational norms, and the extent to which efforts to enhance institutional capacity for  coordinating the implementation of national climate policy are made. In sum, the effective implementation of International Climate Policy Frameworks will be dependent on the willingness of the state to  provide oversight and coordination, and clarity on the availability of international support.

Abstract [sv]

Hur influerar ramverken för internationell klimatpolicy nationella institutionella åtgärder för att begränsa utsläpp av växthusgaser i framväxande ekonomier? Och hur påverkar, i sin tur, dessa länders nationella institutioner och politik dessa ramverk för internationell klimatpolicy? Denna avhandling studerar nationella engagemang i Nationellt lämpliga utsläppsminskande åtgärder (s.k. NAMAs) i tre framväxande ekonomier – Indien, Brasilien, och Sydafrika. Avhandlingen studerar i synnerhet hur dessa engagemang har påverkats av de tre ländernas nationella klimatpolicy, normer, och institutionella kapacitet. Genom att använda policycykeln som heuristiskt analysverktyg identifierar avhandlingen variationer i hur länderna utvecklat sitt engagemang i NAMAs. Avhandlingen visar att och hur engagemang med nationellt lämpliga utsläppsminskande åtgärder varierar mellan Indien, Brasilien, och Sydafrika vad det gäller fastställande av dagordning, policyformulering, beslutsfattande, implementering, och policyutvärdering. I de fall internationellt stöd anses vara avgörande för att vidta utsläppsminskande åtgärder kan externa faktorer såsom bristande definition av de internationella policyramverken för åtgärder samt tillgänglighet på internationellt stöd försvåra utsikterna för att internationella ramverk tas upp i de nationella dagordnings- och policyformuleringsstadierna. Arbetet med dessa ramverk försvåras även av icke-beslut och ojämn interministeriell koordinering samt om tvingande nationell klimatpolicy inte ligger i linje med de internationella besluten. Avhandlingens slutsatser har betydelse för implementeringen av ett annat framväxande ramverk för internationell klimatpolicy: Nationellt fastställda bidrag (s.k. NDC:er). En framgångsrik implementering av   NDC:er kommer att influeras av en stats förmåga att anpassa dem till nationell klimatpolicy samt transnationella normer, så att dessa överensstämmer eller jämkas med nationella normer, samt den institutionella kapaciteten för att koordinera implementering av nationell klimatpolicy. En effektiv implementering av ramverk för internationell klimatpolicy kommer, sammanfattningsvis, att vara beroende av staters villighet att tillhandahålla tillsyn och koordinering, samt tydlighet vad gäller tillgänglighet till internationellt stöd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017. , p. 117
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 708
Keyword [en]
Policy process, Institutions, Domestic Politics, Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions, National, Climate Policy, India, Brazil, South Africa, Institutional Capacity, Norms, Nationally Determined Contributions
Keyword [sv]
Policyprocess, Institutioner, Nationellt Lämpliga Utsläppsminskande Åtgärder, Nationell, Klimatpolicy, Indien, Brasilien, Sydafrika, Institutionell kapacitet, Nationellt Fastställda Bidrag.
National Category
Climate Research Environmental Sciences Globalisation Studies Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies) Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-135431DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-135431ISBN: 9789176855829 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-135431DiVA, id: diva2:1081643
Public defence
2017-04-07, TEMCAS, T building, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-03-14 Created: 2017-03-14 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Developments in national climate change mitigation legislation and strategy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developments in national climate change mitigation legislation and strategy
2013 (English)In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 649-664Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The results are presented from a survey of national legislation and strategies to mitigate climate change covering almost all United Nations member states between 2007 and 2012. This data set is distinguished from the existing literature in its breadth of coverage, its focus on national policies (rather than international pledges), and on the use of objective metrics rather than normative criteria. The focus of the data is limited to national climate legislation and strategies and does not cover subnational or sectoral measures. Climate legislation and strategies are important because they can: enhance incentives for climate mitigation; provide mechanisms for mainstreaming; and provide a focal point for actors. Three broad findings emerge. First, there has been a substantial increase in climate legislation and strategies between 2007 and 2012: 67% of global GHG emissions are now under national climate legislation or strategy compared to 45% in 2007. Second, there are substantial regional effects to the patterns, with most increases in non-Annex I countries, particularly in Asia and Latin America. Third, many more countries have adopted climate strategies than have adopted climate legislation between 2007 and 2012. The article concludes with recommendations for future research.Policy relevance The increase in climate legislation and strategy is significant. This spread suggests that, at the national level, there is some movement in reshaping climate governance despite the relatively slow pace of global negotiations, although the exact implications of this spread require further research on stringency of actions and their implementation. Asia and Latin America represent the biggest improvements, while OECD countries, which start from a high base, remain relatively stagnant. Implications of regional patterns are further refined by an analysis by emissions, which shows that some areas of low levels of legislation and strategy are also areas of relatively low emissions. A broad trend toward an emphasis on strategies rather than legislation, with the significant exception of China, calls for enhanced research into the practical impact of national non-binding climate strategies versus binding legislation on countries' actual emissions over time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Taylor & Francis, 2013
Keyword
Climate change, domestic policy instruments, national policies, policy measures, public policy
National Category
Climate Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99869 (URN)10.1080/14693062.2013.845409 (DOI)000325845100001 ()
Projects
GoVNAMAs - Phase I
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2013-10-22 Created: 2013-10-22 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Aligning Climate Policy with National Interest: Disengagements with Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in South Africa
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aligning Climate Policy with National Interest: Disengagements with Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in South Africa
2016 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 463-481Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) were proposed as a policy framework that could provide middle ground for meeting both the development and mitigation objectives in developing countries. While South Africa engaged actively with the NAMA terminology in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiations, its engagement at the domestic level has been rather lacklus- tre. This presents an interesting paradox. The paper studies the interplay of international norms embodied in NAMAs with South Africa’s domestic policy process. Disengagement and contestation around NAMAs in South Africa is played out at three stages: decision- making stage where the symptoms surrounding this contestation first emerge; policy for- mulation stage where NAMAs have to not only align with the National Development Plan but also compete with a predilection for domestically familiar terminology of flagships under the national climate policy; and finally the broader agenda-setting stage of policy process, where NAMAs have to prove useful in not only pursuing the developmental state agenda but also in tackling the underlying material factors that represent country’s economic dependency on fossil fuels. NAMAs faced combined resistance from ideas and interests in various degrees at all these stages resulting in their disengagement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2016
Keyword
Climate Policy, South Africa, Domestic Politics, International Relations, Policy process, NAMA
National Category
Climate Research Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124580 (URN)10.1080/1523908X.2016.1138402 (DOI)000381299800005 ()
Projects
GoverningNAMAs: Phase 2 -- Enhancing design and support for low-carbon trajectories
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P35462-2
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Energy Agency (Energimyndigheten) [P35462-2]

Available from: 2016-02-04 Created: 2016-02-04 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved

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