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Apply heat pump systems in commercial household products to reduce environmental impact: How to halve the electricity consumption for a household dishwasher
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences. (VIPP forskarskola)
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the household appliance industry, heat pump systems have been used for a long time in refrigerators and freezers to cool food, and the industry has driven the development of small, high-quality, low-price heat pump components. In the last few decades, heat pump systems have been introduced in other household appliances, with the express purpose of reducing electricity consumption. Heat pump tumble dryers have been on the market since 2000 and dominate the market today. A heat pump dishwasher was introduced on the market in 2014 and a heat pump washing machine in 2016. The purpose of adding a heat pump system in these three products was to decrease electricity consumption.

Papers I and II used a methodology where transient simulation models were developed and used to increase knowledge about how to decrease electricity consumption for a tumble dryer and a dishwasher by adding a heat pump system. Papers II to V showed that a lower electricity consumption and lower global warming potential together with an energy-efficient drying method, where no humid air evacuates to the kitchen, give a heat pump dishwasher competitive advantages compared to any conventional dishwasher currently on the market. Using simulations, this dissertation concludes that a future commercial heat pump dishwasher, using R600a as a refrigerant, will reduce electricity consumption and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) by 50% compared to the conventional dishwasher.

The willingness from the customer chain to pay extra for this heat pump dishwasher is because of the decreases electricity consumption and the fact that no humid air evacuates to the kitchen. This willingness makes the heat pump dishwasher to a variant which have possibility to succeed on the future market.

The challenge for the manufacturer is to develop and produce a high-quality heat pump dishwasher with low electricity consumption, predict future willingness to pay for it, and launch it on the market at the right moment with the right promotion in order to succeed.

Abstract [en]

The competition in the household appliances industry is strong. Manufacturers are continuously trying to develop, produce and sell product functions and features with good profit. To continually develop new features that the customer chain is willing to pay for is a key factor for a manufacturer to survive.

In this study has a heat pump system been added as a new feature to a dishwasher. The first heat pump dishwasher was introduced on the market in 2014 and the heat pump system was only used to heat the dishwasher. Comparing that first heat pump dishwasher was a new closed drying method introduced in this study where no humid air evacuates to the kitchen. Experiments and simulations showed that a dishwasher with an added heat pump system can decrease the total electricity consumption by 50% when cleaning and drying the dishware comparing to an on market conventional dishwasher.

The willingness from the customer chain to pay extra for this heat pump dishwasher is because of the decreases in electricity consumption and the fact that no humid air evacuates to the kitchen. This willingness makes the heat pump dishwasher to a variant which have possibility to succeed on the future market.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstads universitet, 2017.
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2017:10
Keyword [en]
household appliance, electricity consumption, heat pump, environmental impact
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-48132ISBN: 978-91-7063-759-9 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7063-760-5 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-48132DiVA: diva2:1080958
Public defence
2017-05-05, 9C203, Nyquistsalen, Karlstad, 09:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-04-13 Created: 2017-03-13 Last updated: 2017-04-25Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Performance Study of a Closed-Type Heat Pump Tumble Dryer Using A Simulation Model and an Experimental Set-Up
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance Study of a Closed-Type Heat Pump Tumble Dryer Using A Simulation Model and an Experimental Set-Up
2014 (English)In: Drying Technology, ISSN 0737-3937, E-ISSN 1532-2300, Vol. 32, no 8, 891-901 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the interests of competitiveness, manufactures of tumble dryers are seeking to reduce both their electricity use and the drying time. This study examines how the cylinder volume of the compressor and the total heat transfer of the condenser influence the drying time and electricity use in a heat pump tumble dryer. A transient simulation model was developed and compared to an experimental set-up with good similarity. The simulations show that increasing the cylinder volume of the compressor by 50% decreases the drying time by 14% without using more electricity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2014
Keyword
Energy analysis; Heat and mass transfer; Heat pump drying; Mathematical modeling
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-33839 (URN)10.1080/07373937.2013.875035 (DOI)000337247400004 ()
Available from: 2014-09-26 Created: 2014-09-26 Last updated: 2017-03-13Bibliographically approved
2. A household dishwasher heated by a heat pump system using an energy storage unit with water as the heat source
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A household dishwasher heated by a heat pump system using an energy storage unit with water as the heat source
2015 (English)In: International journal of refrigeration, ISSN 0140-7007, E-ISSN 1879-2081, Vol. 49, 19-27 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electricity usage by a household dishwasher can be reduced by using a heat pump system to heat the dishwasher cabinet, dishware and washing water. The evaporator obtains the energy from an energy storage unit which consists of a container filled with water which freezes to ice. The majority of the heat transfer from the energy storage to the evaporator occurs when ice is created in the energy storage unit. A transient simulation model of a dishwasher with a heat pump system was developed and compared to an experimental setup with good agreement. A simulation study of the compressor cylinder volume and the compressor operating time was performed. The results showed a 24% reduction in total electricity use compared to a dishwasher cycle using a traditional electric element.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keyword
Appliances, Energy use, Heat transfer, Freezing, Transient simulation, Appareils domestiques, Utilisation d'énergie, Transfert de chaleur, Congélation, Simulation transitoire
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-39072 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2014.10.012 (DOI)000348012500004 ()
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2016-01-19 Created: 2016-01-19 Last updated: 2017-03-13Bibliographically approved
3. Reducing the global warming impact of a household heat pump dishwasher using hydrocarbon refrigerants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reducing the global warming impact of a household heat pump dishwasher using hydrocarbon refrigerants
2016 (English)In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 99, 1295-1302 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a heat pump dishwasher, the dishware and the dishwater constitute the heat sink and a water tank filled with water, which can freeze, the heat source. A simulation model developed and validated earlier was modified and used in a parameter study to determine the lowest total electricity usage for the refrigerants R134a, R290, and R600a with different cylinder volumes of the compressor. The total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) was calculated in three regions with different CO2 eq. emissions from electricity generation, i.e., Sweden, Europe (OECD), and Europe (Non-OECD), for small, medium-sized, and large households. In regions with low CO2 eq. emissions from electricity generation, the total TEWI of a heat pump dishwasher is the lowest with R600a and the highest with R134a, and in regions with high CO2 eq. emissions, the total TEWI is the lowest with R600a and the highest with the conventional electrical element.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keyword
Household appliances, Natural refrigerant, Electrical reduction, TEWI, GWP
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-48130 (URN)10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.02.018 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-03-13 Created: 2017-03-13 Last updated: 2017-04-21Bibliographically approved
4. Study of using a capillary tube in a heat pump dishwasher with transient heating
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of using a capillary tube in a heat pump dishwasher with transient heating
2016 (English)In: International journal of refrigeration, ISSN 0140-7007, E-ISSN 1879-2081, Vol. 67, 1-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For competitive purposes, manufacturers of household appliances need to produce appliances that use less electricity. One way of doing this for a dishwasher is to add a heat pump system. Previous studies using R134a as refrigerant have shown that the addition of a heat pump can reduce total electricity consumption by about 24%. This paper reports on the use of a capillary tube in a heat pump dishwasher during the transient heating period. Working with an available compressor, the mass of R600a and the length of a 0.9 mm capillary tube were varied in order to find the configuration with the lowest electricity consumption. Three methods of calculating the length of the capillary tube were used to determine five lengths for evaluation. The results show that using a single capillary tube throughout the transient heating period yields similar electricity consumption to a variable expansion device which occurred by switching the capillary tube between two or three different lengths during the heating period.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keyword
Home appliances, Expansion device, Environmental impact, Natural refrigerant, Energy use
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-44653 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2016.04.006 (DOI)000378951900002 ()
Available from: 2016-08-11 Created: 2016-08-11 Last updated: 2017-03-13Bibliographically approved
5. Concept Study of a New Method for Drying Dishware in a Heat Pump Dishwater
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concept Study of a New Method for Drying Dishware in a Heat Pump Dishwater
2017 (English)In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, 1-10 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a heat pump dishwasher, the whole dishwasher with the cabinet, dishware and process water is the heat sink, while a water tank, whose contents will freeze, is the heat source. The aim of the experimental concept study presented here was to evaluate a new drying method for a heat pump dishwasher. In this method, the drying of the dishware occurs as a fan circulates humid air in a closed system in which the water on the dishware evaporates inside the warm dishwasher cabinet and then condenses on a cold surface of the frozen water tank. The evaluation of drying performance was based on the European standard EN50242, which considers visible water drops left on the dishware after a completed dishwashing cycle. The results showed that this new closed drying method was more energy efficient compared to an existing open drying method, and that the drying start temperature and the drying time had a significant effect on the drying performance. Its lower electricity consumption and the fact that it does not vent humid air into the kitchen gives this heat pump dishwasher a competitive advantage over dishwashers using an open drying method.

Keyword
Energy reduction, Home appliances, Condensation drying, Freezing
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-48131 (URN)10.1007/s12053-017-9541-4 (DOI)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-03-13 Created: 2017-03-13 Last updated: 2017-08-16Bibliographically approved

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