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Energy storage solutions for electric bus fast charging stations: Cost optimization of grid connection and grid reinforcements
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
2017 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the economic benefits of installing a lithium-ion battery storage (lithium iron phosphate, LFP and lithium titanate, LTO) at an electric bus fast charging station.  It is conducted on a potential electric bus system in the Swedish city Västerås, and based on the existing bus schedules and routes as well as the local distribution system. The size of the energy storage as well as the maximum power outtake from the grid is optimized in order to minimize the total annual cost of the connection. The assessment of the distribution system shows that implementing an electric bus system based on opportunity charging in Västerås does not cause over-capacity in the 10 kV grid during normal feeding mode. However, grid reinforcements might become necessary to guarantee potential backup feeding modes. Batteries are not a cost effective option to decrease grid owner investments in new transformers. However, battery energy storage have the possibility to decrease the annual cost of connecting a fast charging station to the low-voltage grid. The main advantage of the storage system is to decrease the fees to the grid owner. Of the studied batteries, LTO is the most cost effective solution because of its larger possible depth-of-discharge for a given cycle life. The most important characteristics, that determine if a fast charging station could benefit economically from an energy storage, is the bus frequency. The longer the time in between buses and the higher the power demand, the more advantageous is the energy storage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017.
Series
UPTEC ES, ISSN 1650-8300 ; 17 002
Keyword [en]
electric buses, energy storage, lithium-ion battery, distribution grid, fast charging
National Category
Energy Engineering Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-317283OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-317283DiVA, id: diva2:1080948
External cooperation
Mälarenergi Elnät
Educational program
Master Programme in Energy Systems Engineering
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2017-03-14 Created: 2017-03-13 Last updated: 2017-03-14Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
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