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An experimental investigation of spur gear efficiency and temperature: A comparison between ground and superfinished surfaces
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis focuses on reliability when testing gear efficiency and on how gear mesh efficiency can be increased without detrimental effects on the gears. Test equipment commonly used in gear research was analysed to identify important parameters for gear efficiency testing. The effect of the bearing model's load-dependent losses on gear mesh efficiency was also investigated. Two different surface finishes of gears, ground and superfinished, were investigated to determine how two different load levels during running-in affect gear mesh efficiency and changes in surface roughness. Efficiency and gear temperature were also measured for ground and superfinished gears with dip lubrication, as well as two different forms of spray lubrication (before and after gear mesh contact).

Tests on a gear test rig, showed that different assemblies of the same test setup can yield different measurements of torque loss. The applied bearing model had a significant effect on the estimated gear mesh efficiency. The mesh efficiency of ground gears is affected by the running-in procedure, with a higher running-in load resulting in a higher mesh efficiency than a lower load. This effect was not seen for superfinished gears, which show the same gear mesh efficiency for both running-in loads. Gearbox efficiency increased with spray lubrication rather than dip lubrication. The gear mesh efficiency increased, and thus gear temperatures were reduced, when superfinished gears were used rather than ground gears. A lower gear temperature was measured when gears were spray lubricated at the mesh inlet rather than the mesh outlet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , p. 51
Series
TRITA-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2017:02
Keywords [en]
gears, ground, superfinished, efficiency, temperature, running-in, dip lubrication, spray lubrication
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Design
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-202990OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-202990DiVA, id: diva2:1080694
Public defence
2017-03-31, Gladan, Brinellvägen 85, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20170314

Available from: 2017-03-14 Created: 2017-03-10 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Effect of Assembly Errors in Back-to-Back Gear Efficiency Testing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Assembly Errors in Back-to-Back Gear Efficiency Testing
2014 (English)In: International Gear Conference 2014: 26th–28th August 2014, Lyon, Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2014, p. 784-793Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As gear efficiency is improved in small steps, it is important to be able to distinguish actual improvements from scatter that can occur while testing. An FZG back-to-back gear test rig was used to investigate how the assembly and re-assembly of the same test setup affects the measurements. A spread in loss torque between one assembly and another of the same test setup were observed. Rig conditions also affected the spread in input torque. With knowledge of how the spread in loss torque varies due to assembly, test results could be distinguished between changes due to assembly and actual differences between tests.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2014
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-152910 (URN)10.1533/9781782421955.784 (DOI)000348383200079 ()978-1-78242-195-5 (ISBN)978-1-78242-194-8 (ISBN)
Conference
International Gear Conference, August 26-28 2014, Lyon, France
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20150706

Available from: 2014-10-02 Created: 2014-10-02 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
2. Effect of different bearing models on gear mesh loss and efficiency
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of different bearing models on gear mesh loss and efficiency
(English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-202986 (URN)
Note

QC 20140314

Available from: 2017-03-10 Created: 2017-03-10 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
3. Analysis of efficiency of spur ground gears and the influence of running-in
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of efficiency of spur ground gears and the influence of running-in
2016 (English)In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 93, p. 172-181Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High-performing gear transmissions are needed to reduce CO2 emissions. In this paper an FZG gear test rig was used to investigate how two running-in loads affects the gear mesh efficiency for two different temperatures. The gear surface roughness was investigated in parallel with testing. Higher efficiency was observed for tests using a high running-in load, and for low lubricant temperatures. The running-in load had a larger effect on the mesh efficiency than temperature. The high running-in load also yielded higher gear mesh efficiency and had a larger impact on surface parameters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Running-in, Gears, Efficiency, Surface roughness
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173899 (URN)10.1016/j.triboint.2015.08.045 (DOI)000366787700020 ()2-s2.0-84942909258 (Scopus ID)978-1-78242-195-5 (ISBN)978-1-78242-194-8 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 35078-1, 35557-1
Note

QC 20160121

Available from: 2015-09-22 Created: 2015-09-22 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
4. The effect of running-in on the efficiency of superfinished gears
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of running-in on the efficiency of superfinished gears
2016 (English)In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 93, p. 71-77Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reduced gear contact losses are necessary to keep operating temperatures, as well as fuel consumption low. In this work, an FZG gear test rig was used to investigate the effect of running-in on superfinished gears with respect to efficiency. This was compared to ground gears where a higher contact pressure yielded higher efficiency. No difference was found between the two running-in procedures when analysing superfinished gears. The effect of running-in on gears decreased when the initial surface roughness was reduced, which initially had an Ra, Rz and Rpk value of 0.08, 0.75 and 0.08 μm respectively. Superfinished gears showed an overall higher efficiency; however, a distinctly lower efficiency was present below 2 m/s when compared to ground gears.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Gear efficiency, Running-in, Superfinished, Ground
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173902 (URN)10.1016/j.triboint.2015.08.010 (DOI)000366787700010 ()2-s2.0-84942937858 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20160121

Available from: 2015-09-22 Created: 2015-09-22 Last updated: 2017-09-28Bibliographically approved
5. Efficiency and temperature of spur gears using spray lubrication compared to dip lubrication
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficiency and temperature of spur gears using spray lubrication compared to dip lubrication
(English)In: Journal of Engineering TribologyArticle in journal (Refereed) Accepted
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-202984 (URN)
Note

QC 20170314

Available from: 2017-03-10 Created: 2017-03-10 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
6. Efficiency and temperature of spray lubricated superfinished spur gears
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficiency and temperature of spray lubricated superfinished spur gears
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-202985 (URN)
Note

QC 20170314

Available from: 2017-03-10 Created: 2017-03-10 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved

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