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Rye bread in Sweden: Health-related and sensory qualities, consumer perceptions and consumption patterns
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Rye bread has shown potential as a health-beneficial component in the diet, especially in relation to non-communicable diseases. To have a beneficial effect in reality, however, it also needs to be available, chosen and eaten. Less research has focused on rye bread from a consumer perspective. The main aim was to investigate consumption patterns, health-related and sensory qualities and consumer perceptions of bread, more specifically commercial rye bread. In Study I, secondary analysis was performed on bread consumption data from a national dietary survey (n=1,435, 18-80 years). In Study II, commercial rye breads (n=24) were characterized by sensory descriptive analysis; the in vitro measurement fluidity index (FI) was used to predict glycemic properties, and chemical acidity was measured. Study III was a consumer test (n=398, 18-80 years), where acceptance and perceptions of nine rye breads were investigated. Study IV was a web-based and postal sequential mixed-mode survey (n=1,134, 18-80 years) with open-ended items covering health-related perceptions of bread. Consumers with the lowest intake of whole grain and rye bread were from younger age groups, families with children and groups with lower educational levels. Health-related and sensory properties of commercial rye bread varied widely. The FI indicated more beneficial glycemic properties in half of the samples and this was associated with a chewy, dry texture and sour flavor. The younger consumer group (18-44 years) differed in their liking compared to the older group (45-80 years) and displayed a preference toward bread with less whole grain and rye, although different clusters were identified. Rye bread liking was associated with bread type consumed in childhood, food choice motives and educational level. Most (75%) knew of bread they considered healthy. Coarse, whole grain, fiber, sourdough and rye were perceived to be good for the stomach, bowel and, to have good satiation and glycemic properties. Few health claims have been authorized, making it challenging for consumers to identify bread with these properties. Front-of-package label indicating rye bread was sometimes found on breads with very little rye flour. Sensory attributes, foremost textural and flavor, e.g., sourness, correlated with beneficial FI values and could thereby help guide consumers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2017. , 97 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 1652-9030 ; 138
Keyword [en]
national dietary survey, sensory analysis, preference mapping, sourdough, whole grain, public health, health promotion
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Food, Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-316598ISBN: 978-91-554-9847-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-316598DiVA: diva2:1080303
Public defence
2017-04-28, A1:111a, Biomedical Centre (BMC), Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-04-07 Created: 2017-03-09 Last updated: 2017-04-21
List of papers
1. Bread consumption patterns in a Swedish national dietary survey focusing particularly on whole-grain and rye bread
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bread consumption patterns in a Swedish national dietary survey focusing particularly on whole-grain and rye bread
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2014 (English)In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 58, 24024- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Bread types with high contents of whole grains and rye are associated with beneficial health effects. Consumer characteristics of different bread consumption patterns are however not well known.

Objective: To compare bread consumption patterns among Swedish adults in relation to selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors. For selected consumer groups, the further aim is to investigate the intake of whole grains and the context of bread consumption, that is, where and when it is consumed.

Design: Secondary analysis was performed on bread consumption data from a national dietary survey (n=1,435). Respondents were segmented into consumer groups according to the type and amount of bread consumed. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to study how selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors were associated with the consumer groups. Selected consumption groups were compared in terms of whole-grain intake and consumption context. Consumption in different age groups was analysed more in detail.

Results: One-third of the respondents consumed mainly white bread. Socio-demographic, geographic, and healthy-lifestyle-related factors were associated with the bread type consumed. White bread consumption was associated with younger age groups, less education, children in the family, eating less fruit and vegetables, and more candy and snacks; the opposite was seen for mainly whole-grain bread consumers. Older age groups more often reported eating dry crisp bread, whole-grain bread, and whole-grain rye bread with sourdough whereas younger respondents reported eating bread outside the home, something that also mainly white bread eaters did. Low consumers of bread also consumed less whole grain in total.

Conclusions: Traditional bread consumption structures were observed, as was a transition among young consumers who more often consumed fast food bread and bread outside the home, as well as less rye and whole-grain bread. Target groups for communication strategies and product development of more sensorily attractive rye or whole-grain-rich bread should be younger age groups (18–30 years), families with children, and groups with lower educational levels.

Keyword
public health, whole-grain bread, consumption context
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Food, Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-231967 (URN)10.3402/fnr.v58.24024 (DOI)000342086600001 ()25278822 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-09-12 Created: 2014-09-12 Last updated: 2017-03-09Bibliographically approved
2. Characterization of Commercial Rye Bread Based on Sensory Properties, Fluidity Index and Chemical Acidity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of Commercial Rye Bread Based on Sensory Properties, Fluidity Index and Chemical Acidity
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2016 (English)In: Journal of sensory studies, ISSN 0887-8250, E-ISSN 1745-459X, Vol. 31, no 4, 283-295 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rye bread is often considered healthy, especially regarding its potential beneficial effect on blood glucose and insulin regulation, but the characteristics of Swedish rye bread have not previously been described. The aim was to characterize commercial rye bread (n = 24) using sensory descriptive analysis (11 panelists, 15 attributes, 2 replicates), fluidity index (FI; an in vitromeasurement to predict glycemic properties), chemical acidity and selected package information. The associations between sensory and chemical measurements were explored to identify the opportunities and challenges of increased consumption of rye bread with potential health benefits.

Six categories of rye bread were identified on the basis of their sensory profiles. The FI indicated that bread from three of the categories possessed beneficial glycemic properties (FI 50–75). These categories contained 31–100% rye, displaying pH 4.3–4.8. Sensory attributes, foremost textural (e.g., chewiness), but also flavor (e.g., sourness), were highly correlated with FI values, thereby revealing their potential to aid consumers, in that they can serve as quality indicators of the glycemic properties of commercial rye bread. However, this also highlights potential sensory barriers to consumption. Front-of-package rye and sourdough labels on some samples could potentially mislead consumers given the low content of rye/sourdough, despite the labels.

National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Food, Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-305430 (URN)10.1111/joss.12211 (DOI)000385559600002 ()
Funder
VINNOVASwedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2016-10-18 Created: 2016-10-18 Last updated: 2017-03-09Bibliographically approved
3. Different liking but similar healthiness perceptions of rye bread among younger and older consumers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Different liking but similar healthiness perceptions of rye bread among younger and older consumers
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(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Rye breads, especially those with a chewy texture and sour flavor, have shown several health benefits but their consumption is lower among younger consumers than older. This study explored liking of commercial rye bread in younger and older consumers in relation to socio-demographics, childhood bread-eating habits and food choice motives. Further, sensory attributes are explored in relation to the consumers’ concepts of a rye bread and healthiness in bread.

     Nine commercial rye breads previously profiled by descriptive analysis were tasted by 225 younger (18-44 years) and 173 older (45-80 years) consumers. Internal preference mappings by principal component regression for each age group showed low liking for rye bread with a chewy texture and sour flavor in the younger group. Based on the preference mappings, the age groups were separately clustered. Associations between clusters and background variables were studied using discriminant partial least squares regression. Liking of rye bread with a chewy texture and sour flavor in the younger consumer group was associated with higher education, females and the food choice motives health, ethical concern and natural content. In the older consumer group, it was especially related to higher education and background in another Nordic country. Partial least regression-1 showed that the combination of sensory attributes such as a light color and soft texture led to the perception of bread being less healthy and not a rye bread, and a dark brown color, tough texture, sour and bitter flavor to the perception of a healthier bread and rye bread.

Keyword
Food choice questionnaire, childhood bread consumption, preference mapping, healthiness mapping, consumer test
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Food, Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-316596 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2011-242VINNOVA, 2011-242
Available from: 2017-03-04 Created: 2017-03-04 Last updated: 2017-05-03
4. Consumers' health-related perceptions of bread - Implications for labeling and dietary counceling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Consumers' health-related perceptions of bread - Implications for labeling and dietary counceling
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Purpose: From a health perspective, there is a wide variety of commercial bread types. The aim is to describe consumers’ health-related perceptions of bread by exploring which health-related quality attributes consumers associate with bread and whether there are differences with regard to age and education level.

Methodology: A postal and web-based sequential mixed-mode survey (n=1134, 63% responded online and 37% by paper). Open-ended questions and an elicitation task with pictures of commercial breads were used. Responses were analyzed for their content and inductively categorized.

Findings: Three fourths (n=844) knew of breads they considered healthy; these were most commonly described using terms such as “coarse,” “whole-grain,” “fiber rich,” “sourdough,” “crisp,” “less sugar,” “dark,” “rye,” “seeds,” “a commercial brand,” “homemade” and “kernels.” The attributes were perceived as healthy mainly because they “contain fiber” and are “good for the stomach,” or have good “satiation” and beneficial “glycemic properties.” The frequency of several elicited attributes and health effects differed as a function of age group (18-44 vs. 45-80 years) and education level group (up to secondary education vs. university). Difficulties identifying healthy bread were perceived as a barrier for consumption especially among consumers with a lower education level (38%) compared to a higher (28%) (p=.004).

Originality/value: The present study identifies potential pitfalls in consumer evaluations of bread from a health perspective, particularly in relation to labels and packing. The findings are relevant to health professionals working in dietary counseling as well as to industry when designing packaging and to authorities when drawing up regulations.

Keyword
quality perception, cues, labeling, whole grain, age groups, educational level
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Food, Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-316597 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2011-242VINNOVA, 2011-242
Available from: 2017-03-04 Created: 2017-03-04 Last updated: 2017-05-03

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