Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Anammox-based systems for nitrogen removal from mainstream municipal wastewater
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater with the application of deammonification process offers an operational cost reduction, especially if it is combined with a maximal use of organic content of wastewater for biogas production. In this thesis, two approaches for integration of the deammonification process into the municipal wastewater treatment scheme were studied.

The first approach is based on ammonium concentration from municipal wastewater by ion exchange followed by biological removal of ammonium from the concentrated stream by deammonification process. Experiments with synthetic and real municipal wastewater showed that strong acid cation resin is suitable for ammonium concentration due to its high exchange capacity and fast regeneration. Since NaCl was used for regeneration of ion exchange materials, spent regenerant had elevated salinity. The deammonification biomass was adapted to NaCl content of 10-15 g/L by step-wise salinity increase. The technology was tested in batch mode with 99.9 % of ammonium removal from wastewater with ion exchange and up to 95 % of nitrogen removal from spent regenerant by deammonification process.

The second studied approach was to apply anammox process to low-concentrated municipal wastewater in a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) system without a pre-concentration step. After a 5 months period of transition to mainstream wastewater the pilot plant was operated during 22 months and stable performance of one-stage deammonification was proven. Clear advantage of IFAS system was shown. The highest stable nitrogen removal efficiency of 70 % and a nitrogen removal rate of 55 g N/(m3·d) was reached. Moreover, the influence of operation conditions on competition between ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was studied by literature review, batch tests and continuous pilot plant operation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , p. 53
Series
TRITA-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 2017:01
Keyword [en]
Wastewater, Nitrogen removal, Ion exchange, Deammonification, Anammox, Mainstream
National Category
Water Treatment
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-202960ISBN: 978-91-7729-317-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-202960DiVA, id: diva2:1079574
Public defence
2017-04-06, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20170309

Available from: 2017-03-09 Created: 2017-03-08 Last updated: 2017-03-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Concentration of ammonium from municipal wastewater using ion exchange process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concentration of ammonium from municipal wastewater using ion exchange process
Show others...
2013 (English)In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 329, p. 93-102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The scope of this study is concentration of ammonium from municipal wastewater using ion exchange process. Four types of ion exchange materials were tested in packed bed columns, namely strong and weak acid cation exchange resins and natural and synthetic zeolites. In total 23 runs of saturation and regeneration were done using synthetic wastewaters of different kinds and pretreated municipal wastewater. Due to its high exchange capacity and fast regeneration strong acid cation exchange resin was found to be the most suitable for ammonium concentration under condition that selectivity of ammonium removal is not of a main concern and it allows concentrating ammonium from 27 to 580mg NH4-N/L. If selective ammonium removal is required, natural zeolite should be used instead. Regeneration with 0.17M HCl and 0.17-0.51M NaCl was tested and suitability of different regenerants for different technologies of spent regenerant treatment was discussed. It was shown that electric conductivity measurements can be used for detection of breakthrough and estimation of ammonium concentration in outflow from an ion exchange column. Breakthrough curve fitting with Thomas and Adams-Bohart models was performed which gave information about the maximum exchange capacity of materials and kinetics of ion exchange.

Keyword
Ammonium, Concentration process, Electric conductivity, Ion exchange, Wastewater
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-136096 (URN)10.1016/j.desal.2013.09.009 (DOI)000326614100013 ()2-s2.0-84884942760 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20131205

Available from: 2013-12-05 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Combination of ion exchange and partial nitritation/Anammox process for ammonium removal from mainstream municipal wastewater
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combination of ion exchange and partial nitritation/Anammox process for ammonium removal from mainstream municipal wastewater
2014 (English)In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 144-151Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, a new technology of nitrogen removal from mainstream municipal wastewater is proposed. It is based on ammonium removal by ion exchange and regeneration of ion exchange material with 10-30 g/L NaCl solution with further nitrogen removal from spent regenerant by partial nitritation/Anammox process. Influence of regenerant strength on performance of ion exchange and biological parts of the proposed technology was evaluated. Moreover, the technology was tested in batch mode using pretreated municipal wastewater, strong acid cation (SAC) resin and partial nitritation/Anammox biomass. It was shown that with ion exchange it is possible to remove 99.9% of ammonium from wastewater while increasing the concentration of ammonium in spent regenerant by 18 times. Up to 95% of nitrogen from spent regenerant, produced by regeneration of SAC resin with 10 g/L NaCl solution, was removed biologically by partial nitritation/Anammox biomass. Moreover, the possibilities of integration of the technology into municipal wastewater treatment technology, and the challenges and advantages are discussed.

National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-141678 (URN)10.2166/wst.2014.208 (DOI)000341181200021 ()2-s2.0-84904793751 (Scopus ID)
Note

Updated from manuscript to article.

QC 20141003

Available from: 2014-02-19 Created: 2014-02-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Ammonium removal by partial nitritation and Anammox processes from wastewater with increased salinity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ammonium removal by partial nitritation and Anammox processes from wastewater with increased salinity
2015 (English)In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 595-604Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work is dedicated to the biological treatment of wastewater with increased salinity using a combination of partial nitritation and Anammox processes. Two one-stage deammonification moving bed biofilm reactors were operated with the increase in NaCl concentration every two weeks by 5 and 2.5 g/L. The strategy with a step of 5 g/L of salinity increase led to complete inhibition of the process at the salinity level of 15 g/L. The strategy with a step of 2.5 g/L gave possibility to adapt bacteria to the elevated salinity. After reaching the salinity level of 10 g NaCl/L, the reactor was operated during 92 days with a nitrogen removal rate of 0.39 +/- 0.19 g N/(m(2)center dot day) (0.078 +/- 0.038 kg N/m(3)center dot day) and an average nitrogen removal efficiency of 59%. It was shown that conductivity cannot be used for monitoring the process when a reactor is treating wastewater with increased salinity, whereas pH can be correlated to effluent ammonium concentration regardless of wastewater salinity.

Keyword
activity, wastewater, Anammox, nitrification, ammonium
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-160359 (URN)10.1080/09593330.2014.953601 (DOI)000348672000006 ()2-s2.0-84964240162 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150227

Available from: 2015-02-27 Created: 2015-02-19 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
4. Combination of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and partial nitritation/anammox moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for municipal wastewater treatment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combination of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and partial nitritation/anammox moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for municipal wastewater treatment
2015 (English)In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 180, p. 144-153Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study the combination of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a deammonification moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for mainstream wastewater treatment was tested. The competition between aerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was studied during a 5 months period of transition from reject water to mainstream wastewater followed by a 16 months period of mainstream wastewater treatment. The decrease of influent ammonium concentration led to a wash-out of suspended biomass which had a major contribution to nitrite production. Influence of a dissolved oxygen concentration and a transient anoxia mechanism of NOB suppression were studied. It was shown that anoxic phase duration has no effect on NOB metabolism recovery and oxygen diffusion rather than affinities of AOB and NOB to oxygen determine the rate of nitrogen conversion in a biofilm system. Anammox activity remained on the level comparable to reject water treatment systems.

Keyword
Anammox, Mainstream deammonification, AOB, NOB, MBBR
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-161949 (URN)10.1016/j.biortech.2014.12.101 (DOI)000349715700020 ()25600011 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84921419582 (Scopus ID)
Funder
VINNOVASwedish Institute
Note

QC 20150408

Available from: 2015-04-08 Created: 2015-03-20 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
5. Mainstream wastewater treatment in integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor by partial nitritation/anammox process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mainstream wastewater treatment in integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor by partial nitritation/anammox process
2015 (English)In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 198, p. 478-487Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study the system based on the combination of biofilm and activated sludge (IFAS - integrated fixed film activated sludge) was tested and compared with a system that relies only on biofilm (MBBR - moving bed biofilm reactor) for nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater by deammonification process. By introduction of suspended biomass into MBBR the nitrogen removal efficiency increased from 36 +/- 3% to 70 +/- 4% with simultaneous 3-fold increase of nitrogen removal rate. Results of batch tests and continuous reactor operation showed that organotrophic nitrate reduction to nitrite, followed by anammox reaction contributed to this high removal efficiency. After sCOD/NH4-N ratio decreased from 1.8 +/- 0.2 to 1.3 +/- 0.1 removal efficiency decreased to 52 +/- 4%, while still maintaining 150% higher removal rate, comparing to MBBR. Activity tests revealed that affinity of NOB to oxygen is higher than affinity of AOB with half-saturation constants of 0.05 and 0.41 mg/L, respectively.

Keyword
Anammox, Deammonification, IFAS, Mainstream, MBBR
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-177406 (URN)10.1016/j.biortech.2015.08.123 (DOI)000363487500062 ()2-s2.0-84942752825 (Scopus ID)
Funder
VINNOVA
Note

QC 20151127

Available from: 2015-11-27 Created: 2015-11-20 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(1976 kB)192 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 1976 kBChecksum SHA-512
46ee7e485ebd961aaa175a45a6a2ed8429894a1a71b206126743840e260ffd124e5ab3a9308b197540623ddde00d9448b8423ac3f865d7e01359f2a1b86b2ee6
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Malovanyy, Andriy
By organisation
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Water Treatment

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 192 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 506 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf